and about Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Strength to Love /
The Measure of a Man /
Why We Can't Wait
A Testament of Hope /
A Knock at Midnight /
The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., 1948-1963
Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community /
Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story
Behind the Dream: The Making of the Speech that Transformed a
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Public Statement to Martin Luther
Birmingham, Alabama, April 1963
We the undersigned clergymen are among those
who, in January, issued "an appeal for law and order and
common sense," in dealing with racial problems in Alabama.
We expressed understanding that honest convictions in racial
matters could properly be pursued in the courts, but urged
decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully
Since that time there had been some evidence
of increased forbearance and a willingness to face facts.
Responsible citizens have undertaken to work on various problems
which cause racial friction and unrest. In Birmingham, recent
public events have given indication that we all have opportunity
for a new constructive and realistic approach to racial
However, we are now confronted by a series of
demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens, directed and led
in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of
people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized. But
we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and
We agree rather with certain local Negro
leadership which has called for honest and open negotiations of
racial issues in our area. And we believe this kind of facing of
issues can best be accomplished by citizens of our own
metropolitan area, white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge
and experience of the local situation. All of us need to face
that responsibility and find proper channels for its
Just as we formerly pointed out that
"hatred and violence have no sanction in our religious and
political traditions," we also point out that such actions
as incite to hatred and violence, however, technically peaceful
those actions may be, have not contributed the resolution of our
local problems. We do not believe that these days of new hope
are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham.
We commend the community as a whole, and the
local news media and law enforcement officials in particular, on
the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled.
We urge the public to continue to show
restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law
enforcement officials to remain calm and continue to protect our
city from violence.
We further strongly urge our own Negro
community to withdraw support from these demonstrations, and to
unite locally in working peacefully for a better Birmingham.
When rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed
in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not
in the streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry
to observe the principles of law and order and common sense.
Bishop Joseph A.
Rabbi Milton L.
Bishop Paul Hardin
Bishop Nolan B, Harmon
Rev. George M.
Rev. Edward V.
Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, and Denise
McNair. Murdered in an act of terrorism on this day
in 1963. We will never forget Cynthia Wesley, Carole
Robertson and Addie Mae Collins—all 14 years old,
and 11-year-old Denise McNair. They were murdered in
the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in an act of
terrorism by a Klan related group on Sept. 15, 1963
in Birmingham, Alabama. The Birmingham Public
Library has an online digital collection of photos
and news clippings—bplonline
4 Little Girls is a 1997 American
historical documentary film about the
1963 murder of four African-American
girls in the
16th Street Baptist Church bombing
in Birmingham, Alabama, United States.
It was directed by
Spike Lee and nominated for an
Academy Award for "Best Documentary."
. . . The film covered
the events in
Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 related
civil rights demonstrations and the
movement to end racial discrimination in
local stores and facilities. In 1963
Martin Luther King arrived in the
town to help with their strategy. People
of the community met at the
16th Street Baptist Church while
organizing their events.
The demonstrations were
covered by national media, and the use
by police of police dogs and pressured
water from hoses on young people shocked
the nation. So many demonstrators were
arrested that the jail was filled. A
local chapter of the
Ku Klux Klan placed bombs at the
Baptist Church and set them off on a
Sunday morning. Four young girls were
killed in the explosion. The deaths
provoked national outrage, and that
summer the US Congress passed the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was
signed by President
Lyndon B. Johnson.—wikipedia
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Life on Mars
By Tracy K. Smith
Tracy K. Smith, author of Life on Mars has been selected as the winner of the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In its review of the book, Publishers Weekly noted the collection's "lyric brilliance" and "political impulses [that] never falter." A New York Times review stated, "Smith is quick to suggest that the important thing is not to discover whether or not we're alone in the universe; it's to accept—or at least endure—the universe's mystery. . . . Religion, science, art: we turn to them for answers, but the questions persist, especially in times of grief. Smith's pairing of the philosophically minded poems in the book’s first section with the long elegy for her father in the second is brilliant." Life on Mars follows Smith's 2007 collection, Duende, which won the James Laughlin Award from the Academy of American Poets, the only award for poetry in the United States given to support a poet's second book, and the first Essence Literary Award for poetry, which recognizes the literary achievements of African Americans. The Body’s Question (2003) was her first published collection.
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The Gardens of Democracy: A New American Story
of Citizenship, the Economy, and the Role of Government
By Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer
American democracy is informed by the 18th century’s most cutting edge thinking on society, economics, and government. We’ve learned some things in the intervening 230 years about self interest, social behaviors, and how the world works. Now, authors Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer argue that some fundamental assumptions about citizenship, society, economics, and government need updating. For many years the dominant metaphor for understanding markets and government has been the machine. Liu and Hanauer view democracy not as a machine, but as a garden. A successful garden functions according to the inexorable tendencies of nature, but it also requires goals, regular tending, and an understanding of connected ecosystems. The latest ideas from science, social science, and economics—the cutting-edge ideas of today—generate these simple but revolutionary ideas: (The economy is not an efficient machine. It’s an effective garden that need tending. Freedom is responsibility. Government should be about the big what and the little how. True self interest is mutual interest.
The White Masters of the
The World and Africa, 1965
By W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois’
Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization
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Ancient African Nations
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If you like this page consider making a donation
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Negro Digest /
Browse all issues
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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan
The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll
Only a Pawn in Their Game
Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for
George Jackson /
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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg
Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804
January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of
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(Books, DVDs, Music, and more)
update 10 May 2012