Baltimore Orator: Barry Michael
New Jack City,
Above the Rim, &
By Michael A. Gonzales
A. Gonzales Interviews Barry Michael Cooper
In the Eighties,
when the Village Voice still overflowed with
ambition, Barry Michael Cooper began his writing career
under the guidance of music critic Robert Christgau.
While Cooper had written the first rap record review for
the paper, it was not until the textual hip-hop of his
groundbreaking 1988 article, “Teddy Riley’s New Jack
Swing,” that readers really began to pay attention.
Cooper’s article not only named a seminal musical sound,
it also mixed so-called New Journalism with a ghetto
sensibility that was rare in the annals of music
As a Harlemite who
had always loved seeing the hood represented in popular
culture, be it in a poem by Langston Hughes or Fred
Williamson walking down 125th Street in Black Caesar,
Cooper represents uptown in a way no writer has since
the Black Arts Movement of the Sixties. Still, nothing
could have prepared admirers of Cooper’s journalism for
his first foray into the film industry, as the
screenwriter for Mario Van Peebles’s 1991 hit,
New Jack City.
brought in to rewrite a dusty script about heroin in
Harlem by Thomas Lee Wright, Cooper injected the crack
concept and made the work his own. With a memorable cast
of characters — among them drug lord Nino Brown (Wesley
Snipes) and comic relief crackhead Pookie (Chris Rock) —
New Jack Citybecame an instant classic. As Roger
Ebert wrote in the Chicago Sun-Times, “The movie
was advertised (no doubt wisely) as a slam-bang action
adventure, but in fact, it’s a serious, smart film with
an impact that lingers after the lights go up.”
New Jack City, Cooper wrote the hoop-dream saga
Above the Rim, which starred Tupac Shakur, and
Sugar Hill, which starred Wesley Snipes.
Cooper’s gritty Harlem trilogy made an impact on hip-hop
culture that can be heard in Jay-Z’s lyrics and seen in
P. Diddy’s style. Still writing and striving in his
adopted home of Baltimore, where last year he completed
his directorial debut, Blood on the Walls, Cooper’s
oeuvre gives aspiring hip-hop writers something to aim
Harlem is the basis for your films and the foundation
for a lot of your writing.
Cooper: I grew up in Little Washington Heights
between 164th and 165th Street on Amsterdam Avenue. I
lived there until I was about 10 years old. I can
remember socializing with Jewish kids, Irish kids. Then
I moved to Esplanade Gardens. The neighborhood I moved
from was very culturally and racially mixed. When I
moved to Harlem I was scared. I’d always heard the
stories. That was 1968. Esplanade Gardens is a co-op
high rise. You had all levels of society in there — from
millionaires to people on welfare. I’ve been in
Baltimore 22 years now and Harlem is still with me. All
three movies I’ve produced — Sugar Hill, Above the Rim
and New Jack City — were written here in Baltimore. It’s
nice that even out here all that stuff came back to me
in a blinding, colorful flash.
This is what I
would do on Saturdays in the summer time. At nine
o’clock in the morning I’d go to the Schomburg Library
on 135th Street. You could sit down at the Schomburg and
read Countee Cullen or Wallace Thurman’s The Blacker the
Berry. We could read anything by Langston Hughes — any
of those people — and know we’re part of that. I knew
early on that I was a part of that stuff. I had no doubt
about it.From there I’d go to the Rucker Park basketball
courts to watch Dr. J. Then to A.J. Lester’s clothing
store to get what I was going to wear to the Apollo
later that night. I don’t know too many people in this
country that can have that kind of experience, all in
the course of 12 hours. There’s a great artistic legacy
that comes out of Harlem, and it’s imprinted in us like
a kind of cultural DNA.
SS: Do you
remember when crack came to Harlem?
is split into two periods: BC and AC, Before Crack and
After Crack. There was a profound change when that drug
hit Harlem. People talk about heroin, but heroin is
almost a lifer drug. You see 40-, 50-, 60-year-old
lifelong, functional heroin addicts.
SS: To me
crack was the first “out” drug. Guys on the street sold
crack, standing in doorways. Back in the day, dealers
would never think of selling drugs in the open.
would go behind the staircase and that type of thing in
the tenement. I think crack became so widespread because
it didn’t involve needles. People are scared of needles.
With crack — you smoked it, and it was an immediate
SS: Do you
think of crack as a hip-hop drug?
a doubt. Because even people who weren’t getting high
off crack felt the cultural effect it brought. That drug
changed hip-hop. This is gonna sound freaky, but crack
made hip-hop corporate, because the guys who emulated
the crack dealers became rap stars. They wanted to be
tough like them and wanted to floss. Crack made hip-hop
very corporate. It took it beyond break dancing,
graffiti and the South Bronx. The stories that
told, all of them
guys came out of the crack culture. It really had a
profound change on the culture.
I researched this
crack story for Spin back in 1985; that’s when I learned
a lot about the drug. It was the first national piece on
crack. I heard about all the base houses up and down
145th Street, from Bradhurst Avenue all the way over to
Broadway and Riverside. The Spin article was just called
“Crack.” It really opened doors for me. It made people
pay attention. It was also my first piece away from
doing music stories, because that’s what I wanted to go
SS: How did
you become a writer?
always wanted to be a novelist, ever since 11th or 12th
grade. I went to Charles Evans Hughes, which was in
Chelsea. It was a great experience because I was coming
from Harlem. Going to school near Greenwich Village,
meeting all kinds of different people and getting out of
Harlem was great because I was exposed to another world.
I had great English teachers there. I was getting into
poetry contests, literary contests — doing really well.
I had this English teacher who said, “You are a writer
and you need to get published.” When I was in the 11th
grade, I won this poetry award in a contest on 135th
Street that she sponsored.
After that, I
started reading voraciously. I went one year to my
mother’s alma mater, North Carolina Central University,
which is where that girl went who claims she was raped
by the Duke students. I was in the English honors
program, so I was a freshman in a class with seniors. I
started reading my heroes:
I started reading New Journalism.
Tom Wolfe and, of course,
Capote, my hero.
I gotta give my
first girlfriend props. Her name was Cynthia Coleman. I
was frustrated because I was sending my stuff to
magazines, and then I started working at the post office
around 1979. She said, “Why don’t you try to write for a
newspaper, send something to the Amsterdam News.” I
said, “I ain’t no reporter.” She said, “Don’t you know
Richard Wright and Hemingway started off as reporters?
They were reporters.”
Sure enough, she
was on point. From then, I started reading the Voice. I
wasn’t crazy about the Voice, but I liked that they were
able to freely express themselves as writers.
Finally, I called
Bob Christgau one night. I said I wanted to do something
on Parliament-Funkadelic. At the time they had an album
called Gloryhallastoopid. Christgau said, “Bring it to
me. Let me take a look at it. If it’s any good, I’ll run
it. If it’s not, if you call me again I’ll have you
arrested for harassment.”
I brought the piece
to him. He said, “It’s rough and needs work, but you got
a voice.” It ran in January 1980. It was called “The
Gospel According to Parliament” and it was my first
piece in the Voice. Man, I felt like I was
floating on air.
I have to give it
to Christgau. We didn’t always get along; we didn’t
always see eye-to-eye. He had a love for me, but he
didn’t like me like he did Greg Tate and Nelson George.
I guess I was rough around the edges. I had a bad temper
back then. I said certain things to him. I would scream
at him, which was not called for, but I still had a lot
of street in me, too. We respected each other, though.
I can remember when
hip-hop really started catching on. The thing about
Christgau that’s so amazing is he can listen to any kind
of music and riff on it. That’s what amazed me about
this guy: his knowledge, his critical expertise and just
his strong writing ability. I learned a lot from him.
SS: The best
reporters have a natural curiosity.
BMC: Oh, I’m
nosy. That helped me in the long run. I kept at it and
then that crack story happened. I said, “I got it now. I
know where I wanna go with this.” I have to give Rudy
Langlais a lot of credit because he saw it early on. He
said, “That’s why I gave you Frankie Crocker, because
you got a natural curiosity and a really skewed way of
looking at the world.”
SS: Had your
Detroit piece, “New Jack City Eats Its Young,” come out
Detroit piece came out right before. That actually
happened at the same time and they shuffled the
publication on it. I was at Spin and all of a sudden,
I’m Bob Guccione’s favorite writer. He said, “Man,
you’re getting this like no one else gets it.” So they
started assigning me stories. At that time I finally got
a hold of how to mix journalism with what I heard going
on in the music and all that was relating to how I grew
up. There were guys like [drug dealers] Alpo and AZ
riding motorcycles up and down 8th Avenue at two or
three o’clock in the morning, breaking bottles, and I
was hearing all of those stories. All of that was in my
mind. I wanted to detail their voices — the way the
hustlers talked. I wanted to put it in a literary
context like The Great Gatsby. I wanted to write it like
that, with literary fervor. I said, “I’m gonna take
Harlem and the Renaissance and put it in a modern
titled the musical genre New Jack Swing. What did new
jack means two things. My brother used the term a lot.
He was still in New York. I’d never heard the term
before. He used to say, “Yeah, that kid is a new jack.”
I said, “What does that mean?” He said, “You know,
someone who’s new to the game and frontin’.” It’s almost
a derogatory term — almost like a rookie or someone who
was frontin’. Then I heard a song by Grandmaster Caz and
he used a line about this guy who was “a new jack
clown.” I took the phrase and wanted to flip it.
It rang strong, new
jack. They were two words that weren’t supposed to go
together but they did. There was a whole thing about the
play on words and the power of words to me.
New Jack City started this way. Rudy Langlais,
again coming into my life, told me about a guy in
Detroit by the name of Carl Taylor. Taylor was a
professor at Michigan State University. He was widely
regarded as an intellectual and also as a guy who
understood the origins of the decline in urban
neighborhoods and black neighborhoods and families.
He’s a sociologist,
but when I met the dude he was straight gangsta. He and
his brother, Al, used to be bodyguards for Quincy Jones
and he was on the Victory Tour, protecting Michael
Jackson. He was one of his personal bodyguards. He’s
like me in a lot of ways: one foot in academia, the
other foot on the streets. When we met, we really hit it
off. He really is like a mentor.
I went to the
Voice with a story about this guy. I wanted to do
the 20th anniversary of the riots in Detroit on 12th
Street, called euphemistically “the summer of love.” I
got the assignment. Christgau okayed it with this guy
named Greg Ryder. I went to Detroit, met Carl Taylor and
it was enormous. Initially I wanted to get an interview
with the late great mayor, Coleman Young, but he
wouldn’t do it. I wanted to talk to him about the effect
the riots had on the city.
Then I got a call —
to this day I don’t know who it was. The person told me,
“If Mayor Young won’t talk to you, we’ve got a scoop.”
They said that Mayor Young’s niece was, allegedly, a
mule for the biggest drug consortium in the Midwest,
Young Boys Incorporated, who were the predecessors of
the Black Mafia Family, which also comes out of Detroit.
These guys were
clocking $400 million a year, so I went and talked to
some people who were connected to it. I did some
research, talked to district attorneys, talked to some
dudes who were actually in that movement, and that’s
what became “New Jack City Eats Its Young.” It was this
whole thing, politics, drugs and, really, it was the
disintegration of what the riots did to that great city.
You had blacks who
were almost at millionaire status, who were very wealthy
because of the auto industry. They had houses on the
west side of Detroit that were like mansions. These guys
were drug dealers, but they ran their organization like
Ford or Chrysler.
stamping bags of their heroin because they did it in New
York, but YBI took it to a whole other level. Those guys
rolled so hard because they were the ones who were
running it, not street guys. They came from the black
middle class. They’re used to the finer things in life
and they wanna keep that. They don’t wanna work at the
Big Three automakers. These were the first guys I saw
drivin’ jeeps. They had the big cell phones before
anyone else. They were doin’ it big before New York,
before LA, before anybody. The thing that stood out the
night the story got made, me and Taylor and a few other
people went to this festival at the Renaissance Center
in downtown Detroit. It was during the summer and a lot
of people were outside, and these hillbillies almost
smashed into the back of this Mercedes 450 SLC. The guys
jumped out of that car and pulled guns in the middle of
the street. In the story I said I covered my eyes, but I
peeked through my fingers. They held guns on these guys
and the cops didn’t come anywhere near these people.
I was shocked. I
was staying in Canada by the Detroit tunnel, over in
Windsor, Ontario. On our way there, we saw a jeep
embroidered with this MCM stuff and on the back it said,
“How you like me now?” I said, “That’s the fucking
story, this is some gangster shit.”
SS: In terms
of the characters in
New Jack City, were they also informed by
gangsters from Harlem like Nicky Barnes?
NJC was originally scripted about Nicky. It was
written by this guy named Thomas Lee Wright. After the
success of the “NJC Eats Its Young” story, Quincy Jones
saw the piece. Rudy had shown it to him. Quincy said,
“Get that guy. Find him.” They had been looking for a
writer to do a rewrite on the Nicky Barnes script, which
Francis Ford Coppola originally had at Paramount.
said you used Oliver Stone’s screenplay for
Wall Street as a learning device.
BMC: That is
a paradigm for the perfect script. What I did was watch
it 20 times on mute just for story structure, to teach
myself the structure and the body of a script.
Scriptwriting is like craftsmanship. You have act one,
act two and act three. It’s almost like architecture.
You can admire Robert Towne and the greats, like William
Goldman and people like that, but you have to follow a
structure and that’s what I learned.
I met Oliver Stone
at a party. It was me, Russell Simmons, and Stan Lathan.
It was Paula Abdul’s platinum party on Hacienda
Boulevard. Eddie Murphy was there. I said, “Oliver
Stone’s my hero,” so I went over to him, but he was tied
up. I said, “Man, my name is Barry Michael Cooper.” This
NJC had come out. “I wrote the movie.” He said,
“Okay” and shook my hand. I said, “Man, I love your
movie Wall Street. That’s how I learned to write. That
was my tool and my instruction book for writing
NJC.” He said to me, “Okay, thank you very much.
I bet you like
Scarface, too — all niggers like
Scarface.” And he stumbled off.
Right before I
could go after him and commit career suicide, Stan and
Russell pulled on my arm and said, “No you don’t. Let it
go. That’s just him, he’s high.” High or not, it was a
crazy statement. Still, I respect the man.
SS: How much
of Thomas Lee Wright’s original script was kept?
BMC: After I
did one rewrite, the first thing I did was change it
from heroin to crack. I told George, “We gotta tell the
story of what’s going on now: Young kids uptown with
gold chains, Milano cars, thousands of dollars in their
pockets. That’s what people are gonna relate to. Let’s
tell the story of the future that we’re in now.” He
agreed. I was just trying to tell a good story from
personal knowledge. I started to rewrite the script.
The Nino Brown
character was an insider’s wink and nod to the
scramblers who used to shop at this store, Nino Gabriel,
on 61st and Third Avenue, where the shoes started at
$200. I remember when I was in 12th grade, I saved up
five or six neighborhood youth job checks to buy a pair
of $150 shoes there — the most money I’d ever spent in
my entire life. I lied to my mother and said they were
on sale for $60. That was my acknowledgment of the
hustlers — the name Nino Brown. Nino for Nino Gabriel,
brown for the color of the bag.
first time I saw Nino Brown, I thought he embodied the
classic swagger of Cagney and Bogart.
you say that, because the movies I watched were
Angels With Dirty Faces. I went and got those old
Warner Bros. movies, which were Jimmy Cagney showpieces.
And there was the original Scarface with Paul Muni. I
used that template when I did the rewrite. I took that
template and piled on top what I saw going on in the
streets of Harlem and Baltimore. The guys I grew up
with, the language, their movement, the way they fought,
the way they spoke, the places they hung out. I wanted
to put that in, and to director Mario Van Peebles’s
credit, he captured it beautifully.
talk about the effect
NJC had. It was almost immediate. Dudes saw NJC
on Friday and on Monday there were a hundred Nino Browns
up in Harlem.
what happened: Me and a mutual friend of ours, Gary
Harris, on the night
NJC opened, rented a town car. He said, “Yo, you
gotta do this. Everybody does this in Hollywood. We’re
gonna ride to every theater in Manhattan and see how
long the line is.” We rolled around Manhattan probably
from seven that night to almost midnight. At every
single theater in Manhattan, there was a line around the
It was crazy. The
effect it had was like crack. It was an immediate hit.
Wesley gave the performance of a lifetime. He took Nino
Brown and made him sympathetic and repulsive at the same
time. Nino had all of it. In every scene of that movie,
Wesley projected that, so he’s a progenitor of that
movement — of
Puff, of Dame, of
would go as far as people like
Game and even
had confidence, with intelligence, style and danger.
These guys have this because the record business is
dangerous. That’s like the drug game. And the drugs is
Michael Harris, the legendary drug dealer who supposedly
Suge Knight and
Dr. Dre for Death Row. He was
supposed to do a movie at one point, and I had a phone
conversation with him and his wife, Lydia Harris. He
said that if it wasn’t for
New Jack, there would be no
Jay-Z, no Dame Dash,
Puffy. He said, “You saved the East Coast with that
movie. That’s what kept it afloat.” Crack was destroying
neighborhoods, but it was also making people rich.
SS: How do
New Jack City fits into the pantheon of hip-hop
there was no
New Jack, there would be no
Boyz n the Hood, there would be no
Menace II Society, because it let the public
know, and more importantly let the suits in the studios
know, that these movies make money. I think it set it
For more of Barry Michael Cooper's
Stop Smiling, Issue 30: Hip-Hop Nuggets
* * * *
michael a. gonzales--Harlem native
-- has written cover stories for
Essence, Giant, Latina, XXL and
Stop Smiling. A former writer-at-large for Vibe
magazine, Gonzales has also been a staff writer for
The Source, columnist for New York Press and
a frequent contributor to the New York Daily News,
the New York Post and NY Metro. He has
also contributed articles to Spin, the Village
Voice, Ego Trip, Trace and
Bring the Noise: A Guide to Rap Music and
Hip-Hop Culture (Random House, 1991).
writer/director Nelson George as “evidencing the mastery
of detail required of a subject that is all about
mastery of detail,” the book was a groundbreaking text
in hip-hop literature.
A. Gonzales writes a regular music column called “On the
Popmatters.com and has written liner-notes for
reissue collections including The Hip-Hop Box Set,
the O’Jays, the Gap Band, the Crusaders and Al Green.
Having written for MTV and BET, he also served as a
consultant to the Experience Music Project’s (Seattle)
inaugural Hip-Hop/Rap exhibit. He also contributed the
essay “From Rockin’ the House to Planet Rock” to their
catalogue Crossroads (2000).
Gonzales’ essays have appeared in
Best Sex Writing 2005 edited by Violet Blue (Cleis
Beats, Rhymes & Life edited by Kenji Jasper
(Harlem Moon, 2007) and
Best Sex Writing 2006 edited Felice Neaman and
Frederique Delacoste (Cleis Press). A 1999 Code magazine
feature on Prince was reprinted the following year in
the landmark music criticism collection
Rock and Roll is Here to Stay edited by William
McKeen (W.W. Norton & Company, 2000). “My Father Named
Me Prince” appeared alongside pop culture pieces by Tom
Wolfe, Joan Didion and Lester Bangs.
published fiction in
Brown Sugar 2: A Collection of Erotic Black Fiction
edited by Carol Taylor (Simon & Shuster, 2001),
Bronx Biannual 2 edited by Miles Marshall
Lewis (Akashic Books, 2007), Uptown magazine,
Brown Sugar 3: When Opposites Attract edited by
Carol Taylor (Simon & Shuster, 2003) and the upcoming
superheroes collection Darker Mask edited by Gary
Phillips and Christopher Chambers (Tor, 2008).
stories have also been published in France and England.
Like Gypsy Rose Lee, Norman Mailer and Spike Lee before
him, he lives in Brooklyn.
* * *
Generation Soul: Can Dru Hill Revive The Vocal
* * *
(Kalamu reading "My Story, My Song"
Featuring blues guitarist Walter Wolfman Washington)
My Story, My Song (Featuring blues guitarist Walter Wolfman Washington)
* * *
Here lies Jim Crow: Civil rights in Maryland
By C. Fraser Smith
Though he lived throughout much of the South—and even worked his way into parts of the North for a time—Jim Crow was conceived and buried in Maryland. From Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney's infamous decision in the Dred Scott case to Thurgood Marshall's eloquent and effective work on Brown v. Board of Education, the battle for black equality is very much the story of Free State women and men. Here, Baltimore Sun columnist C. Fraser Smith recounts that tale through the stories, words, and deeds of famous, infamous, and little-known Marylanders. He traces the roots of Jim Crow laws from Dred Scott to Plessy v. Ferguson and describes the parallel and opposite early efforts of those who struggled to establish freedom and basic rights for African Americans.
Following the historical trail of evidence, Smith relates latter-day examples of Maryland residents who trod those same steps, from the thrice-failed attempt to deny black people the vote in the early twentieth century to nascent demonstrations for open access to lunch counters, movie theaters, stores, golf courses, and other public and private institutions—struggles that occurred decades before the now-celebrated historical figures strode onto the national civil rights scene. Smith's lively account includes the grand themes and the state's major players in the movement—Frederick Douglass, Harriett Tubman, Thurgood Marshall, and Lillie May Jackson, among others.—and also tells the story of the struggle via several of Maryland's important but relatively unknown men and women—such as Gloria Richardson, John Prentiss Poe, William L. "Little Willie" Adams, and Walter Sondheim—who prepared Jim Crow's grave and waited for the nation to deliver the body.—Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008
* * *
The End of Anger
A New Generation's Take on Race and Rage
By Ellis Cose
From a venerated and bestselling voice
on American life comes a contemporary
look at the decline of black rage; the
demise of white guilt; and the
intergenerational shifts in how blacks
and whites view, and interact with, each
other. In the heady aftermath of
President Obama's election, conventional
wisdom suggested that the bitter, angry,
and destructive elements of
discrimination were ebbing at last and
America was becoming a postracial
nation. . . . Weaving material from
myriad interviews as well as two large
and ambitious surveys that he
conducted—one of black Harvard MBAs and
the other of graduates of A Better
Chance, a program offering elite
educational opportunities to thousands
of young people of color since 1963—Cose
offers an invaluable portrait of
contemporary America that attempts to
make sense of what a people do when the
dream, for some, is finally within reach
as one historical era ends and another
* * *
Black Americans: the Paradox of Hope—By Gary
Younge—But for all the ways black America has felt
better about itself and looked better to others, it
has not actually fared better. In fact, it has been
doing worse. The economic gap between black and
white has grown since Obama took power. Under his
tenure black unemployment, poverty and foreclosures
are at their highest levels for at least a decade.
black kids may well aspire to the presidency now
that a black man is in the White House. But such a
trajectory is less likely for them now than it was
under Bush. Herein lies what is at best a paradox
and at worst a contradiction within Obama’s core
base of support. The very group most likely to
support him—black Americans—is the same group that
is doing worse under him.—TheNation
Greenback Planet: How the Dollar Conquered
the World and Threatened Civilization as We Know It
By H. W. Brands
In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar's astonishing rise to become the world's principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar's changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America's economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan's bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt's handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar's dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today. He concludes with a sobering dissection of the 2008 world financial debacle, which exposed the power--and the enormous risks--of the dollar's worldwide reign. The Economy
* * *
Sex at the Margins
Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry
By Laura María Agustín
This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label 'trafficked' does not accurately describe migrants' lives and that the 'rescue industry' serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. "Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality."—Lisa Adkins, University of London
* * *
The White Masters of the
The World and Africa, 1965
By W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois’
Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization
* * *
Ancient African Nations
* * * * *
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Negro Digest /
Browse all issues
* * * * *
The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan
The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll
Only a Pawn in Their Game
Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for
* * *
The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg
Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804
January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of
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* * *
updated 22 October 2007