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Blacks, Unions, & Organizing in the South, 1956-1996

A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY

Compiled by Rudolph Lewis

George Meany
 

 

Statement on a Bill to Amend the NLRA

Excerpts by William L. Kircher

 AFL-CIO Director, Department of Organization

 

The National Labor Relations Act was hailed as the Bill of Rights for the American labor Movement when it was passed in 1935. . . . It provided processes under which employees could express themselves on unionization and it further provided that certain acts of employers and their agents were unfair labor practices and therefore, illegal. . . . The provisions establishing unfair labor practices were essential . . . in protecting the right to organize if employees, in exercising that right, had to expose themselves to employer intimidation and coercion and even to loss of their jobs.

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As we indicated, 94% of all employers who seek NLRB elections, ostensibly to determine whether their employees really want the union, end up conducting an anti-union campaign before that election. . . . We found from our study that 70% of all the employers who opposed the union gave captive audience speeches. A captive audience speech is one given during production time by the plant superintendent or other agent of the employer. In other words, 70% of all employers who opposed the union were willing to halt production to do it. . . . It is a rare indication indeed when an employer allows the union equal time to respond or allows the union any access whatever to the plant grounds.

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We conducted a special examination of the speeches given during the past four months and found that 50% of them were given within the last 72 hours before the election. Thus they were timed to have their greatest impact and to prevent the union from utilizing other slower means of communication to respond. As a matter of fact, 7% of these speeches were given in the last 24 hours before the election. This is a violation of the Board's election regulations, but this rather clear rule does not seem to have much impact on 7% of the employers.

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It is very natural for workers to unionize because unionism and the collective bargaining process enable them to increase their wages and obtain that dignity and self respect which comes with job security. To overcome these natural tendencies the employer must create an essentially unnatural atmosphere. The ingredients of that unnatural atmosphere are nearly always fear, suspicion, division, and hatred. Employers are not reluctant to create this atmosphere even though they violate the law by doing so because they know that the sanctions they will incur are similar in effect to a slingshot used against a charging elephant. . . . To combat elephantile employer unfair labor practices we need better weapons.

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Frequently the story of the union organizing campaign starts with the decision by a group of local businessmen in a small and rural-dominated community to attract industry. . . . They attempt to offer financial incentives to the company, float bond issues, and, most importantly, they promise cheap 'cooperative' labor.

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Once the company arrives the power structure in the community feels they have a God-sent mission to keep the union out.

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Incidentally, this God-sent mission to keep the union out is frequently strengthened by local business participation in the bond issue and perhaps even a partial, though minority share, in the company. How sad it is that this method of luring business turns into a trap to enslave the entire community. . . . In campaign after campaign in the Southeastern, Southwestern and Midwestern part of the United States, this issue is raised.

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The local police are alerted . . . . The local newspaper is frequently deluged with anti-union editorials with the usual warnings of dire consequences if the union wins. . . . The town banker or local merchant who has extended credit to the employees is also an effective weapon in amassing pressure on the worker. . . . But sure the most heinous of all violations is blacklisting -- the most primitive of all unfair labor practices. This practice can work formally or informally. . . . Under the formal system an employer in an area who fires an employee for his union activity notifies the other employers in the area. . . . Under the informal method the employee is required to state the reason for past discharges on the application form. . . .

The issue of race is often a useful tool of these union busters. If the union is attempting to organize a predominantly Negro work force, then the company pictures the union as responsible for wholesale discrimination in the building trades. But where the unit is comprised primarily of whites, the company stresses contributions made by unions to Civil Rights Groups and more specifically hints that if the union wins, Negroes will replace whites in the work force.

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One of the greatest problems which the union organizer faces is the existence of the so-called "labor consultant". . . . He exists and specializes in one thing--busting unions. A series of these firms--some lawyers and some not--have grown up in various parts of the country. They are very shrewd. The worst of the lot refuse to register under the Labor management Reporting and Disclosure Act. They build up staffs--frequently by recruiting from the NLRB. As a result they have close personal contacts with the NLRB Regional Offices and are intimately familiar with its inner workings.

*****

Far too often a number of key union supporters are discharged shortly after such labor consultants have been hired. . . . one of the chief weapons in the labor consultant's bag of tricks is his ability to delay the final outcome of representation and unfair labor practice cases.

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AALBC.com's 25 Best Selling Books


 

Fiction

#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
#2 - Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree
#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
#4 - Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper
#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Eroticanoir.com Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter

Non-fiction

#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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Super Rich: A Guide to Having it All

By Russell Simmons

Russell Simmons knows firsthand that wealth is rooted in much more than the stock  market. True wealth has more to do with what's in your heart than what's in your wallet. Using this knowledge, Simmons became one of America's shrewdest entrepreneurs, achieving a level of success that most investors only dream about. No matter how much material gain he accumulated, he never stopped lending a hand to those less fortunate. In Super Rich, Simmons uses his rare blend of spiritual savvy and street-smart wisdom to offer a new definition of wealth-and share timeless principles for developing an unshakable sense of self that can weather any financial storm. As Simmons says, "Happy can make you money, but money can't make you happy."

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The New Jim Crow

Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

By Michele Alexander

Contrary to the rosy picture of race embodied in Barack Obama's political success and Oprah Winfrey's financial success, legal scholar Alexander argues vigorously and persuasively that [w]e have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it. Jim Crow and legal racial segregation has been replaced by mass incarceration as a system of social control (More African Americans are under correctional control today... than were enslaved in 1850). Alexander reviews American racial history from the colonies to the Clinton administration, delineating its transformation into the war on drugs. She offers an acute analysis of the effect of this mass incarceration upon former inmates who will be discriminated against, legally, for the rest of their lives, denied employment, housing, education, and public benefits. Most provocatively, she reveals how both the move toward colorblindness and affirmative action may blur our vision of injustice: most Americans know and don't know the truth about mass incarceration—but her carefully researched, deeply engaging, and thoroughly readable book should change that.—Publishers Weekly

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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Enjoy!

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 28 December 2011

 

 

 

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