on President Bush's Speech
the British Ruling Classes
address below in the form of “Critical Comments” the
historical and theoretical aspects of the Speech by President
Bush (London, 19, November 2003) at Buckingham Palace to
the British ruling classes and politicians.
"Comments" on his Speech expose his ignorance or/and
deception regarding history and the logical fallacies and
theoretical premises in the first part of his Speech. I think
that this is sufficient to get the reader into a critical mode.
Bush: Thank you all. Thank you very much. Secretary Straw
and Secretary Hoon, Admiral Cobbold, and Dr. Shipman,
distinguished guests, I want to thank you for your very kind
welcome that you've given to me and to Laura. I also thank the
groups hosting this event, the Royal United Services Institute
and the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Joe: This "kind welcome" by the representatives of
the British ruling classes and Labour Party's government elites
are in sharp contrast to the hostility of the millions of
British rank and file trade unionists, workers and political
activists represented by hundreds of thousands in opposition.
is what the Guardian Unlimited Press reports:
March organisers claim 200,000
Jeffery and agencies
November 20, 2003
of thousands of protesters today converged in central London to
demonstrate against US president George Bush.
Stop the War Coalition, the organizers of the march and a
Trafalgar Square rally, said it was the UK's biggest ever
weekday demonstration and put the numbers attending at over
but well-disciplined, the protesters carried banners with the
single word "Bush" printed above a splatter of blood,
blew whistles and chanted "George Bush,
had customised the placards or brought their own. One read:
"Get the hint, go home." Others waved Palestinian
British workers and political activists know that the British
and American ruling classes and their governments are the major
enemies of peace and freedom, round the world.
for instance British "Labour Against the War":
protesters against Bush presence soiling their country also
recognize that the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq are not
just about the economics of oil, but politically also about U.S. imperialism's unconditional support for
Israeli Zionism, attacking the enemies of Sharon’s Zionist
land-bulldozing campaign against Palestinians
elderly Palestinian citizen (Hamdan Al Arameen, 81 ) was killed
Friday night as a Jewish settler ran over him with a truck and
fled the crime scene, while the Israeli occupying forces
continued its land-bulldozing campaign in the areas south of
Gaza City," the Palestinian news agency IPC reported today.ArabicNews
representative left Sudan under American pressure
representative had left Sudan in a move about which Palestinian
sources said was the result of US pressure on Sudan for hosting
the representative of the movement. Washington lists Hamas being
a "terrorist" group and Sudan "being a terrorism
U.S. terrorist invasions and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq
must be regarded in this geopolitical context. Not only do
American capitalists sell tanks, missiles, and bulldozers to the
Israeli government, paid for by American tax dollars ostensibly
as "foreign aid" to Israel, but now U.S. troops are
stationed in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and occupation forces in
Afghanistan and Iraq fighting countries which supported the
* * * * *
let’s return to Bush's Speech.
Bush: We're honored to be
in the United Kingdom. And we bring the good wishes of the
was pointed out to me that the last noted American to visit
London stayed in a glass box dangling over the Thames. A few
might have been happy to provide similar arrangements for me.
thank Her Majesty, the queen, for interceding. We're honored to
be staying at her house.
Joe: In other words, Bush
may be a terrorist when it comes to sending American soldiers to
kill Muslims and Arabs, and maybe a coward, but not a fool!
While he mealy mouthed about being "welcomed" in
England by the English "people," he knows that his
welcome is really among the British Lords and capitalists, and
the political elite of the Labour Party, only. Bush is not so
stupid as to make himself visible "in a glass box dangling
over the Thames"!
Bush: Americans traveling
to England always observe more similarities to our country than
differences. I've been here only a short time, but I've noticed
the tradition of free speech exercised with enthusiasm is alive
and well here in London.
Joe: Here, Bush
acknowledges the anti-war demonstrators that greeted his arrival
in England, after he snuck in landing his helicopter in the
Buckingham Palace backyard. It is interesting that the British
and American capitalist press did not do the same denunciation
of the Queen of England parasitically living off the taxpayers
in a lavished palace, the way they talked about the 3rd
rate “palaces” of Saddam Hussein and for that matter,
Mugabe in Zimbabwe.
Bush: We have that at home
too. They now have that right in Baghdad as well. The people of
Great Britain also might see some familiar traits in Americans.
Joe: Is this man
delusional, or what? Is Bush so stupid not to realize that other
than Americans duped by the propaganda of capitalist and state
owned media there are who believe that America has brought
"democracy" to Iraq and that the rest of the world is
also so duped?
U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq are not about
"democracy" and "free speech." Iraqis are
under the same oppressive conditions of military occupation,
curfew, and restrictions in Iraq as that which the Palestinians
have imposed on them in the Territories by the Israeli
occupation Gestapo military forces.
Americans in Iraq are not a force for “liberation,” as was
the case, in a limited sense, in German Nazi occupied France.
In World War II, the American imperialists worked with the
bourgeois faction of the French resistance in “liberating”
the French from the iron boot of Nazi Gestapo occupation.
In Iraq, today, the American forces are the occupying Gestapo
suppressing the Iraqi resistance!
Bush: We're sometimes
faulted for a naive faith that liberty can change the world. If
that's an error, it began with reading too much John Locke and
Joe: Bullshit! None
have ever "faulted" U.S. imperialism for having a
"naïve faith that liberty can change the world"!
U.S. imperialism is recognized the world over as a repressive
world rogue superpower that is the enemy of "liberty."
It is only the "naïve" in America who believe that
U.S. foreign policies are motivated by a desire to promote
"liberty." America has historically, both
domestically and internationally, been a bastion of capitalism
and slavery, chattel slavery and wage-slavery.
far as Bush claims to have read and internalized the works of
John Locke and Adam Smith, as the motivation of U.S. imperialism
to wage wars of aggression, and occupy and colonize countries,
Bush's speech writers are as ignorant as he is. John Locke
and Adam Smith advocated the exact opposite!
Locke, to the extent that he was a political philosopher,
advocated Tolerance, whereas George Bush is a reactionary
Christian fundamentalist who claims that God told him to wage
war on Islamic countries. Bush claims that his wars, and
hostile foreign policy agendas against Korea, Iran, Libya, Iraq,
Syria, et al are wars against "evil," with the ole
war-god Jehovah on his side, egging him on. How in the world
does Bush derive this Christian fanaticism from the atheistic,
materialist philosophies in the works of John Locke? He doesn't.
Smith, in particular, was an economist, and a deist. Based
on empirical data and analysis of the British economy and
empire, Smith developed a labour-time theory of value, as the
basis of wealth creation and opposed both the Physiocratic
(land=wealth) theories, and the theory and practice of British
mercantilism and colonialism. Although a bourgeois
economist yet as a scientist following through on his critiques,
Adam Smith, would be in the streets together with the anti-war
protestors denouncing the Anglo-American invasion and its
occupation/colonization of Afghanistan and Iraq.
doesn't know what the hell he's talking about! Locke and Smith
Bush: Americans have on
occasion been called moralists, who often speak in terms of
right and wrong. That zeal has been inspired by examples on this
island, by the tireless compassion of Lord Shaftesbury, the
righteous courage of Wilberforce, and the firm determination of
the Royal Navy over the decades to fight and end the trade in
Joe: This presentation by
American capitalist and state-owned media to the American people
of issues of American capitalist's interests in terms of
"right and wrong" is here a designed for consumption
back home. No one in the world has ever referred to the
American ruling classes and politicians as
and Americans are arrogant enough to think of themselves as
“God's elect,” and America's enemies as not just
"wrong," but "evil." This
moral/fundamentalist rhetoric has been, and is now being used by
the American capitalist media to mobilize Americans to support
the U.S. aggression in Middle Asia as a war of "good versus
evil," predicated upon the false assumption that America is
the representatives of "good," and that the Iraqis,
Palestinians, Germans, French, Syrians, Libyans and on and on
far as Shaftesbury and, in particular Wilberforce, are
concerned, it is particularly hypocritical of George Bush to use
the struggle in Britain against the slave trade as an American
capitalist heritage, because at the time it was American slavery
that the anti-slave traders fought.
Bush: It's rightly said
that Americans are a religious people. That's in part because of
the good news that was translated by Tyndale, preached by
Wesley, lived out in the example of William Booth.
Joe: Here again Bush
reveals his Christian fundamentalism and fanaticism. The
American ruling classes and politicians push Christianity in
this country, and ideologically use it to justify their
aggression against, and hostility toward other peoples of other
religions in other countries. Bush is here stating his
version of the "White Man's Burden." For the
victims of British and American "zeal," the Gospel is
not "good news," but bad news.
Bush: At times Americans
are even said to have a puritan streak. And where might that
have come from? Well, we can start with the Puritans.
Joe: Was Bush expressing
his "puritan streak" when he dodged the Vietnam War,
snorted coke and gut busted drunk driving? But that's only
significant as far as hypocrisy is concerned.
Puritan movement in England was a political history of bourgeois
democratic opposition to the monarchy. I like the way
Trotsky summed it up:
lower house represented the nation in that it represented the
bourgeoisie and thereby national wealth. . . . The army
gradually concentrated in its ranks all the most active,
courageous and resolute elements. As a direct consequence of
this, parliament capitulated to this army. We say: as a direct
consequence of this. By this we mean that parliament capitulated
not simply to armed force (it had not capitulated to the king's
army) but to Cromwell's puritan which expressed the requirements
of the revolution more boldly, more resolutely and more
consistently than did parliament.
adherents of the Episcopal or Anglican, semi-Catholic Church
were the party of the court, the nobility and of course the
higher clergy. The Presbyterians were the party of the
bourgeoisie, the party of wealth and enlightenment. The
Independents, and the Puritans especially, were the party of the
petty bourgeoisie, the plebeians. Wrapped up in ecclesiastical
controversies, in the form of a struggle over the religious
structure of the church, there took place a social
self-determination of classes and their re-grouping along new,
bourgeois lines” (Leon Trotsky Two
Traditions: The Seventeenth-Century Revolution and Chartism
Bush has in common with the Puritans in England is presenting
bourgeois class interests in religious eschatological images.
Puritans in America (in New England, for instance) are known not
so much for democratic proclivity but for intolerance and
burning alike both "heretics" and strong women, the
latter as "witches." Is this not the
"puritan streak" Bush is in the tradition in his
self-proclaimed "war against evil"?
Bush: To this fine
heritage, Americans have added a few traits of our own: the good
influence of our immigrants and the spirit of the frontier.
Jo: Is Bush
"adding" to the Puritan traits of intolerance and
murdering of women, the forced "immigration" of
millions of Africans into brutal slavery? The pogroms against
Jewish and Catholic immigrants, the genocidal wars against
Native Americans in the "frontier"? Is this the
"heritage" that U.S. imperialism wants to carry out in
Afghanistan, and Iraq? Seems so!
Bush: Yet there remains a
bit of England in every American. So much of our national
character comes from you, and we're glad for it. The fellowship
of generations is the cause of common beliefs.
Joe: Is this not pure White
Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) American racism pure and simple?
The Africans, the Native Americans, the Mexican Americans, the
Asian-Americans, and for that matter immigrants from Italy, and
other non-Anglo Europeans are excluded from the American
"heritage," and legitimacy.
Bush: We believe in
open societies ordered by moral conviction. We believe
in private markets humanized by compassionate
government. We believe in economies that reward effort,
communities that protect the weak and the duty of
nations to respect the dignity and the rights of all.
And whether one learns these ideals in County Durham or
in West Texas, they instill mutual respect and they
inspire common purpose.
Just as Bush
clearly expressed his WASP racism above, saying "a
bit of England in every American", so now he
clearly identifies "open society" as the
capitalist market system of based on capitalist monopoly
of ownership of the means of production and
is the economic system Americans want to force the world to
participate in, with Anglo-American capitalist dominate (as in
Bush: More than an alliance
of security and commerce, the British and American peoples have
an alliance of values. And today this old and tested alliance is
Joe: There is no
justification for the Saturday attacks on Jewish Synagogues in
Turkey. However, Bush’s statement and the applause he received
referring to the joint British and American wars on Afghanistan
and Iraq as an "alliance of security and commerce,"
"alliance of values" in waging wars on Muslim and Arab
countries, make attacks, such as those today, on British
political offices in Turkey inevitable. It is significant
that these assaults on Britain coincided with the Bush visit
with the British ruling classes and political establishment.
in America, the government and Santa Barbara police arranged at
this time to arrest Michael Jackson for sexual deviance.
Puritans have always had sex hang-ups about what other people
are doing. The news media in the United States have
practically ignored the hundreds of thousands of British workers
and political activists who demonstrated against Bush in England
and the attacks on the British embassy in Turkey. The American
media focused the American peoples attention mostly on Michael
Jackson's homosexual interracial sex life.
Bush: The deepest beliefs
of our nations set the direction of our foreign policy. We value
our own civil rights, so we stand for the human rights of
others. We affirm the God-given dignity of every person, so we
are moved to action by poverty and oppression and famine and
Joe: This statement by Bush
on behalf of the American ruling classes must be interpreted in
context of what was said before about private (capitalist)
property, the market, and so on. "Civil rights" and
"human rights," and "values" are ideological
terms, the meaning of which is the capitalist "right"
to purchase human labor power of the propertyless masses, and
thus own the wealth produced by those propertyless workers.
pointed out above, Bush made references to John Locke and Adam
Smith. This understanding of bourgeois rights was first
articulated by Locke and Smith, and further developed by David
Ricardo and Karl Marx to demonstrate mathematically the
exploitation of wage-labor by capital.
clap trap about "values" and "god-given
dignity" and so on is laughed at by atheistic and class
conscious workers in Europe, who recognize that Bush colored
economic greed with religious mumbo jumbo. But American workers,
who have been inundated with such rhetoric, now believe in it.
Bush’s fundamentalist rhetoric is not so much directed to the
representatives of British landlords and capitalists at
Buckingham Palace, but rather toward American media consumption.
Bush: The United States and
Great Britain share a mission in the world beyond the balance of
power or the simple pursuit of interest. We seek the advance of
freedom and the peace that freedom brings.
Joe: As the British say,
Balderdash! By "advance of freedom," the U.S. and
British capitalists, whose material economic interests Bush and
Blaire represent, is meant neo-liberal (Smithian) "free
trade," which is the "mission" of Anglo-American
troops in Afghanistan, and Iraq. By "peace,"
what Bush means is the suppression of opposition to U.S. global
domination, the "Pax-Americana."
Bush: Together our nations
are standing and sacrificing for this high goal in a distant
land at this very hour. And America honors the idealism and the
bravery of the sons and daughters of Britain.
Joe: Translated from
demagogic rhetoric, what Bush is doing is praising the American
and British soldiers, who are fools enough to sacrifice their
lives and health for British and American capitalists to seize
control of Iraqi oil fields.
Bush: The last president to
stay at Buckingham Palace was an idealist without question. At a
dinner hosted by King George V in 1918, Woodrow Wilson made a
pledge. With typical American understatement, he vowed that
right and justice would become the predominant and controlling
force in the world.
Joe: Again, nothing but
demagogic rhetoric that is seen through by workers and peasants
in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, but lapped up by
teary Americans back home. Wilson's questionable
"idealism" was nothing but the entry of U.S.
imperialism into the affairs of the Old World. And, at
this meeting, the U.S. and British imperialists discussed how
the British Empire, bringing poverty, injustice, exploitation,
and military repression to the 3rd world would be safeguarded.
on the political agenda in 1918 was how to intervene into the
Russian Revolution, to overthrow the infant Soviet government of
Workers and Peasant's Deputies.
an ignoramus and a fool would have believed what Bush claimed
Wilson stated to the public about "right and justice"
becoming the "predominant and controlling forces in the
world.” Were that their objective, the Anglo-American
capitalists would have turned the productive forces, in Britain
and the United States, over to the workers in those countries.
Were that the case, workers and farmers governments would have
been established in Britain and America, and removed British and
American forces from the colonies rather than trying to suppress
the workers revolution in Russia.
Bush: President Wilson had come to Europe with his 14 points
for peace. Many complimenting him on this vision yet some were
dubious. Take, for example, the prime minister of France. He
complained that God himself had only 10 commandments. Sounds
Joe: Obviously this was a swipe at the French for not
capitulating to Anglo-American domination in 1918. Along
with not supporting or participating in the Anglo-American war,
invasion and occupation of Iraq today. Incidentally, one
of the "idealist" issues that George and Wilson
discussed was the British imperialist displacement of the
Ottoman Empire in the Muslim Arab world, which is the basis of
the conflicts today.
Bush: At Wilson's high point of idealism, however, Europe
was one short generation from Munich and Auschwitz and the
Joe: What Bush seems not to know, or, if known, refuses to
acknowledge, is that the Munich Scheme was participated in by
the "Allies"; and that "Auschwitz" was made
possible by the European and American capitalists, and the
governments that represented them. They were supportive of the
Nazi reaction initially as a "bulwark against
recent article in a British socialist magazine reviewing the
book The Chamberlain-Hitler Collusion, by Alvin Finkel
and Clement Leibovitz, reviewed by Paul Ursell, points out how
it is documented that
British ruling class was keen for Germany to re-arm because they
saw in the Nazis a natural ally and potential savior against
communism. Chamberlain wrote to the King expressing the idea
that Germany and England would be "the two pillars of
European peace and buttress against communism". When in
1936 the Rhineland was re-militarized the cabinet actively
opposed French plans to stop it. Cabinet minutes show that they
felt that if the French plans succeeded Hitler would be
overthrown and the German communists would benefit http://www.socialismtoday.org/37/chamberlain37.html
do not have space enough to do an informational analysis of
technological, economic, political social conditions in Germany
following World War I led directly to the rise of the Nazi
nationalists in the 1930s and 40s.
reader is encouraged to do the research on how following World
War I, war and poverty in Russia ushered in the Russian
Revolution which culminated in Soviets of Workers and Peasants
Deputies, and a revolutionary Bolshevik workers government in
1917 in Russia, and German workers strikes and mutinies in the
failed German Revolution in 1919. Check out on the Marxist
Internet Archive: Rosa Luxemburg Order Prevails in Berlin: http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1919/01/14.htm
order to gain legitimacy in the German working-class the Nazi
Party had to deceptively call itself "socialist" —
"National Socialist"! Read Hitler's Mein
Kampf. The contradictions in German capitalism in the
30s crisis was attributed to "the Jews" by deceptively
pinning on them the characteristics of money-grubbing
capitalists. By combining this fantastic "Jew,"
as both capitalist and communist conspirator Hitler attacked not
just Jews and Gypsies but trade unions, social-democratic as
well as the communist worker's party.
long as the Nazis were getting rid of the trade unionists,
socialists, and communists in Germany, and where it expanded,
the capitalist West, including Britain and the United States,
regarded the Jews as expendable. It was not the British or
Americans, but the Soviet Red Army that liberated Auschwitz!
Bush: Looking back, we see the reasons why The League of
Nations, lacking both credibility and will, collapsed at the
first challenge of the dictators.
Joe: This statement by Bush
is a-historical hogwash. The Americans are today in the
role of Nazi Germany aggression, Blitz, which it calls now
"shock and awe" — invading and occupying countries
in Middle Asia. What Bush is doing in this section of his
speech is turning history upside down. He is intimating
that the reactions of the German and French by their opposition
to American international Nazis policies of invasion and
occupation are a Munich-like capitulation whereas their
opposition to U.S. aggression places is in fact standing up to
the international "dictator," the un-elected and
war-mongering nationalist, George W. Bush.
Bush: Free nations
failed to recognize, much less confront, the aggressive
evil in plain sight. And so, dictators went about their
business, feeding resentments and anti-Semitism,
bringing death to innocent people in this city and
across the world and filling the last century with
violence and genocide.
Joe: At the time to
which Bush refers the French and British were the
world's greatest colonizers and oppressors of the
majority of the people of the world. Hardly
beacons of "freedom"!
it is the United States, Britain, and Israel that are
the "aggressive evil in plain sight." The
American, British, and Israeli regimes that are going
"about their business, feeding resentments and
anti-Semitism"— that is, anti-Islamic and anti-Arab and
Anti-Palestinian aggressions bringing death to innocent
people across the world and filling the century with
violence and genocide.
Bush: Through world war and cold war we learned that
idealism, if it is to do any good in this world, requires common
purpose and national strength, moral courage and patience in
difficult tasks. And now our generation has need of these
Joe: This from Bush is nothing but demagogic rhetoric.
"Idealism," "good," "purpose,"
"moral courage" are indefinable abstractions that any
one can claim, even the low-life coward. That Bush can
claim these "qualities" is proof of that! The
Palestinian, Afghan, and Iraqis resisting Anglo-American and
Israeli Blitzkriegs and occupation exercise the real,
Bush: On September the 11th, 2001, the terrorists left their
mark of murder on my country and took the lives of 67 British
citizens. With the passing of months and years, it is the
natural human desire to resume a quiet life and to put that day
behind us as if waking from a dark dream. The hope that danger
has passed is comforting, is understanding and it is false.
Joe: The Anglo-American
invasions and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq has nothing to
do with September the 11th, 2002; but, rather, has everything to
do with oil and money, and protecting the garrison state of
Bush: The attacks that followed in Bali, Jakarta,
Casablanca, Bombay, Mombasa, Najaf, Jerusalem, Riyadh, Baghdad
and Istanbul were not dreams. They're part of a global campaign
by terrorist networks to intimidate and demoralize all who
Joe: Rather the opposite: The attacks in those locations
were engendered by and are engendered by Israeli and
Anglo-American policies of war and occupation, which engender
conditions, which engender such actions. There may yet be
time, and opportunity to prevent complete deterioration by an
immediate and unconditional withdrawal of British, American, and
Israeli occupation forces.
Bush: These terrorists target the innocent and they kill by
the thousands. And they would, if they gain the weapons they
seek, kill by the millions and not be finished.
Joe: This statement coming from the mouth of George W. Bush
is nothing but demagogic rant and inverted logic.
people of the World, including Britain if not the United States,
recognize Bush as the international terrorist, and the American
and British troops that "target the innocent and kill by
the thousands." America's military forces have
already "killed by the millions"—in Japan, Korea,
Vietnam, El Salvador, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Angola, Iraq . . .
Bush: The greatest threat of our age is nuclear, chemical.
or biological weapons in the hands of terrorists and the
dictators who aid them.
chemical or biological weapons" are already in the hands of
terrorists! See my piece on Nuclear
Theatre published in ChickenBones:
Bush: The evil is in plain sight. The danger only increases
with denial. Great responsibilities fall once again to the great
democracies. We will face these threats with open eyes and we
will defeat them.
Joe: This statement (by
Bush) is nothing but metaphysical mumbo jumbo directed at
Christian fundamentalist patriots back in the States.
There is no such thing as "evil" because there is no
"devil" nor for that matter "gods."
are at issue here are material interests, and Bush represents
the class interests of American banks and transnational capital
in rivalry with the European Union. See my article PaxAmerica in
Decline on this competition, again
published by ChickenBones: A Journal.
MUST stop here. Space does not permit me to go further.
* * *
* * * * *
The New Jim Crow
Mass Incarceration in the Age of
By Michele Alexander
Contrary to the
rosy picture of race embodied in Barack
Obama's political success and Oprah
Winfrey's financial success, legal
scholar Alexander argues vigorously and
persuasively that [w]e have not ended
racial caste in America; we have merely
redesigned it. Jim Crow and legal racial
segregation has been replaced by mass
incarceration as a system of social
control (More African Americans are
under correctional control today... than
were enslaved in 1850). Alexander
reviews American racial history from the
colonies to the Clinton administration,
delineating its transformation into the
war on drugs. She offers an acute
analysis of the effect of this mass
incarceration upon former inmates who
will be discriminated against, legally,
for the rest of their lives, denied
employment, housing, education, and
public benefits. Most provocatively, she
reveals how both the move toward
colorblindness and affirmative action
may blur our vision of injustice: most
Americans know and don't know the truth
about mass incarceration—but her
carefully researched, deeply engaging,
and thoroughly readable book should
* * * *
Blacks in Hispanic Literature: Critical Essays
Blacks in Hispanic Literature is a
collection of fourteen essays by scholars and
creative writers from Africa and the Americas.
Called one of two significant critical works on
Afro-Hispanic literature to appear in the late
1970s, it includes the pioneering studies of
Carter G. Woodson and
Valaurez B. Spratlin, published in the 1930s, as
well as the essays of scholars whose interpretations
were shaped by the Black aesthetic. The early
essays, primarily of the Black-as-subject in Spanish
medieval and Golden Age literature, provide an
historical context for understanding 20th-century
creative works by African-descended, Hispanophone
writers, such as Cuban
Nicolás Guillén and Ecuadorean poet, novelist,
Adalberto Ortiz, whose essay analyzes the
significance of Negritude in Latin America. This
collaborative text set the tone for later
conferences in which writers and scholars worked
together to promote, disseminate, and critique the
literature of Spanish-speaking people of African
descent. . . .
Cited by a
literary critic in 2004 as "the seminal study in the
field of Afro-Hispanic Literature . . . on which
most scholars in the field 'cut their teeth'."
* * * * *
The White Masters of the
The World and Africa, 1965
By W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois’
Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization
* * *
Ancient African Nations
* * * * *
If you like this page consider making a donation
* * * * *
Negro Digest /
Browse all issues
* * * * *
The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan
The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll
Only a Pawn in Their Game
Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for
George Jackson /
* * *
The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg
Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804
January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of
* * * * *
* * *
update 4 December 2011