* * *
Journal of the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences
by Stephen R. Graubard
Spring 1967 "Color and Race"
Edward Shils, "Color, the Universal Intellectual Community, and
the Afro-Asian Intellectual." (279)
Edward Shils asks why color, an "inherently meaningless property
of man" has "come to assume such great importance in the
self-image of many human beings." Recognizing that "the
coincidence of color with inferior positions" in many societies
has contributed to the present situation, Mr. Shils seeks for a
more fundamental explanation of the phenomenon. He questions
whether it may not rest in the fact that "self-identification by
color has its origins in the sense of primordial connection with
which human beings find it difficult to dispense." Whether this
primordial association will not soon diminish, particularly
among intellectuals who will find other bases of
self-identification, is what Mr. Shils is most anxious to
Robert K.A. Gardiner, "Race and Color in International Affairs"
Robert K.A, Gardiner’s interest is to describe the role of race
and color in international relations. As a Europe-centered world
gave way to one in which the more numerous peoples—non-white and
non-Western—sought to discover a place for themselves, racial
difference became an easy distinction on which to fasten. Though
there seems to be a community of interest among the non-white
states, other ties (historical and cultural) intervene to make
their relations complex and varied. . . .Mr. Gardiner, looking
at the next twenty-five years, is far from optimistic. He sees
racial conflict as a distinct possibility in several places.
Over the long run, however, he is more sanguine. Economic
interdependence is only one of several forces making for a kind
of unity which will not be subordinated to racial factors.
Roger Bastide "Color, Racism, and Christianity" (312)
Bastide, in writing about "Color, Racism, and Christianity," is
concerned to demonstrate that "color is neutral; it is the mind
that gives it meaning." By analyzing the symbolic representation
of color in the early Christian church and then among the
Protestant sects, he shows how an early symbolism survived
religious change, making for impressions that were exceedingly
difficult to modify. Calvinism, while reaching its judgments
about dark skin color by a route very different from that of
Catholicism, ended by associating darkness of color with evil
itself. . . . Certain color associations have survived the
disappearance of their earlier Christian roots, though not
without subtle and important changes.
Philip Mason, "The Revolt against Western Values" (328)
Philip Mason writes of a reaction in this century among colored
peoples which, in his view, is becoming increasingly common. The
colored man, having suffered "widespread exclusion, humiliation,
and exploitation," no longer expects to receive justice from the
white man. His situation leads him to a vigorous rejection of
white ideals; an identification in militantly racist terms
becomes conspicuous. . . . [This] search for identity does not
appear to be concerned with any formal adherence to Western
Harold R. Isaacs, "Group Identity and Political Change: The Role
of Color and Physical Characteristics" (353)
Harold R. Isaacs sees in the collapse of the political power
structures of recent centuries a collapse also of the "racial
mythologies" that supported them. . . . Mr. Isaacs demonstrates
the ways in which concepts of group identity are responding to
political change, choosing his examples from Israel, North
Africa, the Philippines, tropical Africa, India, Malaysia, and
China. These examples "suggest that the issues of ‘race’ and
color among men have not been reduced as a source of conflict,
only shifted to new places on the crowded stage of current
Francois Raveau, An Outline of the Role of Color in Adaptation
Fancois Raveau describes research he and his colleagues have
been conducting at the Centre de Psychiatrie Sociale in Paris.
Their object has been to inquire into how Africans from the
French-speaking republics who are studying in Paris to prepare
themselves for higher posts in their own countries adapt to
living in an overwhelmingly white environment. . . . The
investigation . . . suggests how difficult the task of
adaptation can be for the colored individual, and what anxieties
it may produce in him. The implications of this monograph are
Kenneth J. Gergen, "The Significance of Skin Color in Human
Kenneth J. Gergen examines from a very different perspective how
skin color differences may serve to create feelings of
alienation. That there is a common (though by no means
universal) color symbolism can be demonstrated. . . . The
identification by skin color, which serves to perpetuate
stereotypes, is obviously damaging to the individual who suffers
such categorization. The effort to counter this unjust
representation must be made; the chances of success are greatest
. . . if this is attempted during childhood.
Hiroshi Wagatsuma, "The Social Perception of Color in Japan"
Hiroshi Wagatsuma, in writing about the attitudes of the
Japanese toward skin color, shows how they "valued ‘white’ skin
as beautiful and ‘black’ skin as ugly" long before they had any
sustained contact with Europeans, Africans, or Indians. . . .
there remains some resistance to certain of the physical
attributes of Caucasian men and women. . . . an ambivalence to
the world of white people prevails, but is constantly being
re-examined. This is not so, however, for the strongly negative
attitudes the Japanese hold toward Negro physical
characteristics. These reactions . . . may explain why Japan has
taken little note "to date of the emergence of a new Africa,"
and why it feels such limited kinship with Asian countries other
Andre Beteille, "Race and Descent as Social categories in India"
Beteille writes of India where religious and linguistic
groupings and caste affiliations determine social groupings, but
where "racial" differences are little remarked on. . . . The
caste system has served to create a variety of stereotypes, some
of which have to do with physical characteristics. Mr. Beteille
explains the significance of the concept of jati, by which most
Indians express their understanding of the meaning of race and
Leon Carl Brown, "Color in Northern Africa" (464)
Carl Brown addresses himself to the question of how the
predominantly white populations living in the northern part of
Africa have regarded the blacks to the south. He shows that
while North Africa has been aware of the black man, it has not
seen him as playing an important role. . . . "While Northern
Africa is not color-blind, it is hardly color-conscious." Only
in recent years, when political advantage in a close association
with Black Africa has recommended itself, has Northern Africa
begun to be interested in Black Africa. . . .
Colin Legum, "Color and Power in the South African Situation"
Legum describes the racial situation in South Africa. Tracing
developments since World War II, Mr. Legun shows how the power
of the white minority is tied to the survival of the status quo,
and why this must almost certainly lead to civil war or foreign
intervention. . . . "It is clearly a mistake to minimize either
white South Africa’s capacity for resistance or its
determination to resist. . . . [the whites] can rule, and they
do; but only by force. On either side, the colored peoples are
able to challenge white authority, but lack the power to break
it despite their superiority in numbers."
E.R. Braithwaite, The "Colored Immigrant" in Britain (496)
position of the "colored immigrant" in Britain is described by
E. R. Braithwaite. The greatest number of these
immigrants—Indians, Pakistanis, and West Indians—has come to
Great Britain since World War II. Mr. Braithwaite dwells
particularly on the problemsof the West Indians . . .
Kenneth Little, "Some Aspects of Color, Class, and Culture in
Kenneth Little surveys [the British situation], but from a
different perspective. He attempts to explain how prejudice and
racial discrimination, which existed even before great numbers
of colored immigrants arrived, have been heightened by the
cultural differences between the host society and those who have
recently come. Until those differences are reduced . . . there
is no great prospect for close relations among the races.
Eric Linclon, "Color and Group Identity in the United States"
Eric Lincoln describes the situation in the United States where
"skin color is probably the most important single index for
uncritical human evaluation." Documenting "the near pathological
obsession with race and color" which Americans have exhibited,
Mr. Lincoln shows its deleterious effects on both white and
black men. . . . "the color-caste psychology persists. . . . A
universal system of apartheid has, in effect, been exchanged for
a selective system of apartheid." . . . In the idea of black
Americans as "black people," a new kind of identity is being
Julian Pitt-Rivers, "Race, Color, and Class in Central America
and the Andes" (542)
differences between racial discrimination in the United States
and in Latin America are very real. As Julian Pitt-Rivers makes
abundantly clear, societies that evolved from English and
Spanish colonies are fundamentally different in this respect. In
North America, the problem has been "the assimilation of all
ethnic groups into a single society." In Latin America, . . .
when Indians flock to the cities . . . his appearance is thought
to reveal his social status.
Florestan Fernandes, "The Weight of the Past" (560)
Florestan Fernandes describes the Brazilian situation
(particularly in Sao Paulo) . . . There, the Negro and mulatto
were not able to establish themselves in the better positions as
these were largely taken over by immigrants of European origin.
The Negro, recently liberated from slavery, was ill adapted to
urban life. . . . The "New Negro" who did break out was not
always welcomed, either by whites or by his fellow Negroes. The
social order, with its vestigial discrimination on the basis of
color, has remained relatively unchanged.
David Lowenthal, "Race and Color in the West Indies" (580)
Lowenthal writes of race and color in the West Indies, where
myths of "racial understanding" are belied by the facts of
racial discrimination. Still, the discrimination is of a
different order than that which exists in the United States. .
Note in his Bibliography, Robert E.
Hood's frequent use of the Spring 1967 issue of Daedalus,
an issue that deal entirely with "Color and Race."
* * * * *
Journal of the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences
Spring 1967 "Color and
Roger Bastide, born in
1898 in Nimes, France, is professor in the Faculte de Letters et
Science Humanities at the Sorbonne and Director of the Centre de
Psychiatrie Sociale. He is the author of Sociologie et
Psychanalyse (Paris, 1950); Les Religions Africaines au
Bresil (Paris, 1960); and Sociologie des Maladies
Mentales (Paris, 1965). Mr. Bastide did research for UNESCO
on race relations in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1951-52, and, more
recently, on African students in France.
Andre Beteille, born in
1934 in Chandannagore, India, is a Reader in Sociology at the
University of Delhi. He has published Caste, Class and power:
Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village (Berkeley
and Los Angeles, 1965) and numerous articles in scholarly
Eustace Ricardo Braithwaite,
born in 1912 in Guyana, South America, is Ambassador and
permanent Representative of Guyana to the United Nations. His
novels include To Sir, With Love (1959); A Kind of
Homecoming (1961); Paid Servant (1962); and A Choice
of Straws (1967). In 1962 he received the Anisfield-Wolf
Literary Award for To Sir, With Love.
Leon Carl Brown, born
in 1928 in Mayfield, Kentucky, is Associate Professor of
Oriental Studies at Princeton University. The editor of State
and Society in Independent North Africa (Washington, D.C.,
1966), he was co-author of Tunisia: The Politics of
Modernization (New York, 1964). Mr. Brown served with the
U.S. Foreign Service in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1954-55, and in
Khartoum, Sudan, from 1956 to 1958.
born in 1920 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is professor of Sociology at
the University of Sao Paulo. His many publications include Mudancas
Sociais no Brasil (Sao Paulo, 1960); Folclore e Mudanca
Social na Cidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, 1961); A
Sociologia numa Era de Revolucao Social (Sao Paulo, 1963); A
Integracao do Negro a Sociedade de Classes (Sao Paulo,
1965); and Educacao e Sociedade no Brasil (Sao Paulo,
Robert Keweku Atta Gardner,
born in 1914 in Kaumasi, Ghana is Executive Secretary of the
economic Commission for Africa. Mr. Gardiner was
Officer-in-Charge of the United Nations Operations in the Congo
in 1962-63, and in 1961 was appointed Director of the Public
Administration of the United Nations Department of Economic and
Kenneth J. Gergen, born
in 1934 in Rochester, New York, is Assistant Professor of Social
Psychology at Harvard University. Mr. Gergen has three books in
press: The Self in Social Interaction, Vol. 1; Personality
and Social Interaction; and The Study of Policy Formation.
He has published some thirty studies in psychology in scholarly
Harold R. Isaacs, born
in 1910, is Professor of Political Science at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Mr. Isaacs was associate editor and
correspondent for Newsweek from 1943 to 1950 with
assignments in Washington, New York, China, India, and southeast
Asia. His publications include, among many, India’s
Ex-Untouchables (New York, 1965); The New World of Negro
Americans (New York, 1963); and Scratches on Our Minds,
American Images of China and India (New York, 1958).
Colin Legum, born in
1919 in Kestell, orange Free State, South Africa, is
Commonwealth Correspondent for the Observer in London. Mr. Legum
has edited Africa Handbook (1961, 1966); Lumumumba, My
Country (1963); Zambia—Independence and After
(1966). He has also published Must We Lose Africa?
(1954); Bandung Cairo & Accra (1958); Congo
Disaster (1960); A Short Guide to Pan-Africanism
(1962); and with Margaret Legum South Africa: Crisis for the
C. Eric Lincoln, born
in 1924 in Athens, Alabama, is professor of Sociology at
Portland State College. Mr. Lincoln's publications include The
Black Muslims in America (Boston, 1961); My Face Is Black
(Boston, 1964); and The Negro Pilgrimage in America (New
York,, in press). Mr. Lincoln has lectured widely in the United
States and abroad and has contributed numerous articles to
scholarly journals and magazines.
Kenneth Lindsay Little,
born in 1908 in Liverpool, England, is Professor of Social
Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh. he is the author of
Negroes in Britain (London, 1947); Race and Society
(Paris, 1952); The Mende of Sierra Leone (London, 1951);
and West African Urbanization (Cambridge, 1965).
David Lowenthal, born
in 1923 in New York City, is Research Associate of the American
Geographical Society and Visiting Professor at Harvard and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Lowenthal has written
George Perkins Marsh, Versatile Vermonter (New York,
1958), and The West Indies Federation: Perspectives on a New
Nation (New York, 1961); he has also edited Man and
Nature (Cambridge, Mass, 1965).
Philip Mason, CIE, OBE,
born in 1906, is Director of the Institute of Race Relations in
London. As Philip Woodruff, he published The Men Who Ruled
India in two volumes: The Founders (London, 1953) and
The Guardians (London, 1954). He has also written The
Birth of a Dilemma (London, 1958) and Prospero's Magic
born in 1919 in London, is Visiting professor at the Ecole
Pratique des Hautes Etudes of the University of Paris. Since
1957 he has taught at the University of Chicago. Mr. Pitt-Rivers
has published The People of the Sierra (London, 1954) and
as editor Mediterranean Countrymen (The Hague, 1964). In
preparation or in press are Social and Cultural Change in the
Highlands of Chiapas and Race Relations in Latin America.
Francois H. M. Raveau,
born in 1928 in Saintes (Charente Maritime), France, is
Assistant Director of the Centre de Psychiatrie Sociale of the
Ecole Pratique des Hauets Etudes at the Sorbonne. Dr. Raveau, a
neuropsychistrist, is also a professor in the Faculty of
Medicine of Paris. His publications include Contribution sur
le plan neuro-psychiatrique a la pathologie post-concentrationnaire
(Paris, 1962); Pathologie mentale et adaptation chez les
Africains (Paris, 1962); Pathologie mentale et adapation
chez les Africains (Paris, 19650; and numerous articles in
medical and sociological journals.
Edward Shils, born in 1911, is
professor of Sociology and Social Thought at the University of
Chicago and a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University.
His books include The Present State of American Sociology
and The Intellectual Between Tradition and Modernity. he
is also editor of Minerva, a quarterly review of the
relations of science, learning, and policy.
Hiroshi Wagatsuma, born in 1927 in Tokyo,
Japan, was Assistant Research Psychogist at the Institute of
Human Development at the University of California at Berkeley
from 1962 to 1966. His writing in Japanese include Psychology
of Human Nature (with Otoya Miyagi, Ichiro Yasuda, Yoshio
Nagumo); National Character--The Europeans, the Americans,
and the Japanese (with Takao Sofue); For the
Understanding of Love--Psychological Analysis of Marital Life;
and Social Psychology of the Self. Mr. Wagatsuma is
presently writing with George DeVos Japan's Invisible Race:
Cultural Psychology of the Caste System.
Note in Dr. Robert E. Hood's
Bibliography the frequent use of the Spring 1967 issue of Daedalus, an
issue that deal entirely with "Color and Race."