ChickenBones: A Journal

for Literary & Artistic African-American Themes


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Reforming Education for Liberation


Arturo Schomburg --Benjamin Quarles

Education & History Index

Quarles Bio-Chronology   Negro in the American Revolution  / Historiography and African Americans

In the Sistine Chapter by Arthur A. Schomburg    African American Firsts   African American Firsts YouTube

Send contributions to: ChickenBones: A Journal / 2005 Arabian Drive / Finksburg, MD 21048-- I became aware of Rudy Lewis’ labor of love a few short months ago during a visit to Kalamu ya Salaam’s e-drum listserv. As soon as I saw the title of the journal I knew it was about Black folks, and the power of the written word.  A quick click took me into a journal that’s long on creativity, highlighting well-known, little known, and a little known writers, and commitment to the empowerment of Black folks. I contacted Rudy to ask if he’d consider publishing some of my work. His response was immediate, and a couple of days after I’d forwarded some poems to him—they were part of ChickenBones. What I didn’t know was that this journal has been surviving for the last five years with very little outside financial support. . .  If we want journals like this to “thrive” we need to support them with more than our website hits, praise, and submissions for publication consideration.

—Peace, Mary E. Weems (January 2007)                       

Negro Comrades of the Crown

African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. Before Emancipation

By Gerald Horne

Dr. Gerald Horne, professor of History and African American Studies at the University of Houston, said, the American revolt of 1776 against British rule “was basically a successful revolt of racist settlers. It was akin to Rhodesia, in 1965, assuming that Ian Smith and his cabal had triumphed. It was akin to the revolt of the French settlers in Algeria, in the 1950s and 1960s, assuming those French settlers had triumphed.” Dr. Horne explores the racist roots on the American Revolution in his new book, Negroes of the Crown. “It was very difficult to construct a progressive republic in North America after what was basically a racist revolt,” said Horne. “The revolt was motivated in no small part by the fact that abolitionism was growing in London…. This is one of the many reasons more Africans by an order of magnitude fought against the rebels in 1776, than fought alongside them.”In this path-breaking book, Horne rewrites the history of slave resistance by placing it for the first time in the context of military and diplomatic wrangling between Britain and the United States.

Libya set up by NATO—Fake Libyan Rebels exposed / Russia criticizes France over arming Libyan rebels  / British brains, brawn and bombs bolster Libyan rebels

Revolutionary Backlash

Women and Politics in the Early American Republic

By Rosemarie Zagarri

The Seneca Falls Convention is typically seen as the beginning of the first women's rights movement in the United States. Revolutionary Backlash argues otherwise. According to Rosemarie Zagarri, the debate over women's rights began not in the decades prior to 1848 but during the American Revolution itself. Integrating the approaches of women's historians and political historians, this book explores changes in women's status that occurred from the time of the American Revolution until the election of Andrew Jackson. Although the period after the Revolution produced no collective movement for women's rights, women built on precedents established during the Revolution and gained an informal foothold in party politics and male electoral activities. . . . Federalists and Jeffersonians vied for women's allegiance and sought their support in times of national crisis. Women, in turn, attended rallies, organized political activities, and voiced their opinions on the issues of the day. After the publication of Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, a widespread debate about the nature of women's rights ensued. The state of New Jersey attempted a bold experiment: for a brief time, women there voted on the same terms as men. . . . Yet as Rosemarie Zagarri argues in Revolutionary Backlash, this opening for women soon closed.

African-American Odyssey, The Combined Volume

By Darlene Clark Hine

The African-American Odyssey is a compelling story of agency, survival, struggle and triumph over adversity. The authors highlight what it has meant to be black in America and how African-American history is inseparably woven into the greater context of American history. The text provides accounts of the lives of ordinary men and women alongside those of key African-Americans and the impact they have had on the struggle for equality to illuminate the central place of African-Americans in U.S. history more than any other text.

This compendium of resources includes up to 100 most commonly assigned history works like Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, and Machiavelli’s The Prince. Students can monitor their progress and instructors can monitor the progress of their entire class. Automated grading of quizzes and assignments helps both instructors and students save time and monitor their results throughout the course.

Bob Dylan—Highway 51 1963Bob Dylan—Ballad of Hollis Brown  /  Harry Belafonte—John Henry / Nina Simone—Ballad of Hollis Brown Go to Hell  

No University Is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom

By Cary Nelson

No University Is an Island offers a comprehensive account of the social, political, and cultural forces undermining academic freedom. At once witty and devastating, it confronts these threats with exceptional frankness, then offers a prescription for higher education's renewal. In an insider's account of how the primary organization for faculty members nationwide has fought the culture wars, Cary Nelson, the current President of the American Association of University Professors, unveils struggles over governance and unionization and the increasing corporatization of higher education. Peppered throughout with previously unreported, and sometimes incendiary, higher education anecdotes, Nelson is at his flame-throwing best. The book calls on higher education's advocates of both the Left and the Right to temper conviction with tolerance and focus on higher education's real injustices. Nelson demands we stop denying teachers, student workers, and other employees a living wage and basic rights. He urges unions to take up the larger cause of justice. And he challenges his own and other academic organizations to embrace greater democracy.        Q&A with Cary Nelson

American Women's History

See Also the bibliographies of these files 

Bolden, Tony. The Book of African-American Women: 150 Crusaders, Creators, and Uplifters.  Adams Media Corporation, 1996.

Kazickas, Jurate, and Lynn Sherr. Susan B. Anthony Slept Here. A Guide to American Women's Landmarks. Random House, 1994

Nevergold, Barbara A. Seals  and Peggy Brooks-Bertram. Uncrowned Queens:  African American Community Builders. Uncrowned Queens, 2002.

Weatherford, Doris. American Women's History.  Prentice Hall General Reference, 1994

A Matter of Justice

Eisenhower and the Beginning of the Civil Rights Revolution

By David. A. Nichols

David A. Nichols  takes us inside the Oval Office to look over Ike's shoulder as he worked behind the scenes, prior to Brown, to desegregate the District of Columbia and complete the desegregation of the armed forces. We watch as Eisenhower, assisted by his close collaborator, Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr., sifted through candidates for federal judgeships and appointed five pro-civil rights justices to the Supreme Court and progressive judges to lower courts. We witness Eisenhower crafting civil rights legislation, deftly building a congressional coalition that passed the first civil rights act in eighty-two years, and maneuvering to avoid a showdown with Orval Faubus, the governor of Arkansas, over desegregation of Little Rock's Central High. Nichols demonstrates that Eisenhower, though he was a product of his time and its backward racial attitudes, was actually more progressive on civil rights in the 1950s than his predecessor, Harry Truman, and his successors, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. . . .  In fact, Eisenhower's actions laid the legal and political groundwork for the more familiar breakthroughs in civil rights achieved in the 1960s.

Interview with Ngugi Wa Thiong'o  /  From the Heart of Black Nova ScotiaMarsalis and Martins—ffbeat (1994)  /  Noam Chomsky—The Conscience of America

Bob Dylan—Highway 51 Live at Town Hall 1963Ballad of Hollis Brown  /   Harry Belafonte—John Henry / Nina Simone—Go to Hell  / Ballad of Hollis Brown

Rebirth of a Nation: The Making of Modern America, 1877-1920

By Jackson Lears

Lears describes his book as a “synthetic reinterpretation” of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, an effort to dislodge classics like Richard Hofstadter’s Age of Reform (1955) and Robert Wiebe’s Search for Order, 1877-1920 (1967). It’s an ambitious project; both books, despite legions of critics, have shown remarkable staying power. Fortunately, Lears is well qualified for the task. One of the deans of American cultural history (as well as a professor at Rutgers University), Lears has spent decades writing about turn-of-the-20th-century debates over consumerism, modernity, religion and market capitalism. With Rebirth of a Nation, he expands his vision to include politics, war and the presidency as well.—NYTimes

Lears, full of high purpose, is not a slave to method. He collapses distinctions between public and private, conscious and unconscious, and high, low, and middlebrow culture into a singular, undifferentiated mass of evidence. Everywhere he looks, he sees the signs and symbols of rebirth, which remains a trope rather than a principle of historical selection. Rebirth, renewal, revival, regeneration, and revitalization are used interchangeably, imprecisely. The book’s politics are clear enough.BookForum

The Birmingham Children's March started on May 2, 1963. Flyers had been distributed in black schools and neighborhoods that said, "Fight for freedom first then go to school" and "It's up to you to free our teachers, our parents, yourself, and our country."

On May 2, more than a thousand students skipped school and gathered at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. Demonstrators marched to the downtown area, to meet with the Mayor, and integrate the chosen buildings. More than 1,200 children were arrested the first day in a demonstration that received national attention.

Teachers can request a free copy of the excellent film, The Children’s March, from Teaching Tolerance: For more resources for "teaching outside the textbook" about the Civil Rights Movement, check out this list from the Zinn Education Project website: / More about the march on the King Papers Project website: Stanford.Childrens_Crusade/ Photo: May 4, 1963.See More—in Birmingham, Alabama

A Matter of Human Rights

Bill H.R.40: The Commission to Study the Reparations Proposal

By M. Quinn     

Bill H.R. 40  / Congressman John Conyers, Jr. on Reparations / Amendment XIII - US Constitution  / Amendment XV - US Constitution

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

A Matter Of Law: A Memoir Of Struggle In The Cause Of Equal Rights

By Robert L. Carter and Foreword by John Hope Franklin

Robert Lee Carter (March 11, 1917 – January 3, 2012) insisted on using the research of the psychologist Kenneth B. Clark to attack segregated schools, a daring courtroom tactic in the eyes of some civil rights lawyers. Experiments by Mr. Clark and his wife, Mamie, showed that black children suffered in their learning and development by being segregated. Mr. Clark’s testimony proved crucial in persuading the court to act, Mr. Carter wrote in a 2004 book, “A Matter of Law: A Memoir of Struggle in the Cause of Equal Rights.” As chief deputy to the imposing Mr. Marshall, who was to become the first black Supreme Court justice, Mr. Carter labored for years in his shadow. In the privacy of legal conferences, Mr. Carter was seen as the house radical, always urging his colleagues to push legal and constitutional positions to the limits. He recalled that Mr. Marshall had encouraged him to play the gadfly: “I was younger and more radical than many of the people Thurgood would have in, I guess. But he’d never let them shut me up.” Robert Lee Carter was born in Caryville, in the Florida Panhandle . . . . NYTimes 

Midnight Rising

John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War

By Tony Horwitz

Plotted in secret, launched in the dark, John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was a pivotal moment in U.S. history. But few Americans know the true story of the men and women who launched a desperate strike at the slaveholding South. Now, Midnight Rising portrays Brown's uprising in vivid color, revealing a country on the brink of explosive conflict. Brown, the descendant of New England Puritans, saw slavery as a sin against America's founding principles. Unlike most abolitionists, he was willing to take up arms, and in 1859 he prepared for battle at a hideout in Maryland, joined by his teenage daughter, three of his sons, and a guerrilla band that included former slaves and a dashing spy. On October 17, the raiders seized Harpers Ferry, stunning the nation and prompting a counterattack led by Robert E. Lee. After Brown's capture, his defiant eloquence galvanized the North and appalled the South, which considered Brown a terrorist.

Sussex County: A Tale of Three Centuries  / Public Education in Sussex County in Black and White   / The Official History of Jerusalem Baptist Church

Cudjoe Lewis—Last African Born in Africa

Brought to the United States by the transatlantic slave trade

Cudjoe Lewis is believed to be the last African born on African soil and brought to the United States by the transatlantic slave trade. He was a native of Takon, Benin, where he was captured in 1860 during an illegal slave-trading venture. Congress outlawed the importation of slaves in 1808. Together with more than a hundred other captured Africans, he was brought on the ship Clotilde to Mobile, Alabama. Cudjoe and 31 other enslaved Africans were taken to the property owned by Timothy Meaher, shipbuilder and owner of the Clotilde. 5 years later slavery was over so Cudjoe and his tribespeople requested to be taken back to Africa, but it was left ignored. He and other Africans established a community near Mobile, Alabama which became called Africatown. They maintained their African language and tribal customs well into the 1950s. He died in 1934 at the age of 94. Before he died, he gave several interviews on his experiences including one to the writer Zora Neale Hurston. During her interview in 1928, she made a short film of Cudjoe, the only moving image that exists in the Western Hemisphere of an African transported through the Transatlantic Slave Trade.MasterAdept

Millennial Momentum

How a New Generation Is Remaking America

By Morley Winograd and Mr. Michael D. Hais

About every eight decades, coincident with the most stressful and perilous events in U.S. history—the Revolutionary and Civil Wars and the Great Depression and World War II—a new, positive, accomplished, and group-oriented “civic generation” emerges to change the course of history and remake America. The Millennial Generation (born 1982–2003) is America’s newest civic generation. In their 2008 book, Millennial Makeover, Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais made a prescient argument that the Millennial Generation would change American politics for good. Later that year, a huge surge of participation from young voters helped to launch Barack Obama into the White House. Now, in Millennial Momentum, Winograd and Hais investigate how the beliefs and practices of the Millennials are transforming other areas of American culture, from education to entertainment, from the workplace to the home, and from business to politics and government. The Millennials’ cooperative ethic and can-do spirit have only just begun to make their mark, and are likely to continue to reshape American values for decades to come.Rutgers University Press

How Black Colleges Are Turning White and Keeping Their Historically Black Colleges and Universities Status: The Ethnic Cleansing of African Americans in the Age of Obama (Part 1 of 3)—By Jahi Issa, Ph.D.—Although the Higher Education Act of 1965 clearly states that an HBCU is a school “whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans,” economist and scholar at American Enterprise Institute, Richard Vedder, reminds us that there is a trend being shaped where as HBCUs who formally had an African American majority student and faculty body, and now have White majority populations, still receive federal funding geared for African Americans. These two schools are Bluefield State College and West Virginia State University. According to a May 19, 2000 CNN report, White enrollment at HBCUs is on the rise. Other schools such as Kentucky State University, Elizabeth City State University and Delaware State University are only a few schools that have a growing White and non-African American student and faculty population. Furthermore, according to an August 17, 2011 Wall Street Journal article called “Recruiters at Black Colleges Break From Tradition,” HBCUs such as Tennessee State University, Delaware State University  and Paul Quinn College are cited as no longer focusing exclusively on recruiting African Americans. The author of the article points out that Tennessee State University’s Black enrollment has reduced to around 70 %, while Paul Quinn College Black enrollment has been predicted to fall from 94% to 85% for the Fall 2011 academic year. . . . Voxunion  /  HBCUs  Table

Notable Black Memphians by Miriam DeCosta-WillisThis biographical and historical study by Miriam DeCosta-Willis (PhD, Johns Hopkins University and the first African American faculty member of Memphis State University) traces the evolution of a major Southern city through the lives of men and women who overcame social and economic barriers to create artistic works, found institutions, and obtain leadership positions that enabled them to shape their community. Documenting the accomplishments of Memphians who were born between 1795 and 1972, it contains photographs and biographical sketches of 223 individuals (as well as brief notes on 122 others), such as musicians Isaac Hayes and Aretha Franklin, activists Ida B. Wells and Benjamin L. Hooks, politicians Harold Ford Sr. and Jr., writers Sutton Griggs and Jerome Eric Dickey, and Bishop Charles Mason and Archbishop James Lyke—all of whom were born in Memphis or lived in the city for over a decade. . . 

The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells /  Homespun Images  /   Through My Open Window  /  Ties that bind  / Third Wave Feminism (Miriam DeCosta-Willis)




Here lies Jim Crow: Civil rights in Maryland

 By C. Fraser Smith

Though he lived throughout much of the South—and even worked his way into parts of the North for a time—Jim Crow was conceived and buried in Maryland. From Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney's infamous decision in the Dred Scott case to Thurgood Marshall's eloquent and effective work on Brown v. Board of Education, the battle for black equality is very much the story of Free State women and men. Here, Baltimore Sun columnist C. Fraser Smith recounts that tale through the stories, words, and deeds of famous, infamous, and little-known Marylanders. He traces the roots of Jim Crow laws from Dred Scott to Plessy v. Ferguson and describes the parallel and opposite early efforts of those who struggled to establish freedom and basic rights for African Americans. . . . Smith's lively account includes the grand themes and the state's major players in the movement—Frederick Douglass, Harriett Tubman, Thurgood Marshall, and Lillie May Jackson, among others.—and also tells the story of the struggle via several of Maryland's important but relatively unknown men and women—such as Gloria Richardson, John Prentiss Poe, William L. "Little Willie" Adams, and Walter Sondheim—who prepared Jim Crow's grave and waited for the nation to deliver the body.Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008

When a Job Disappears, So Does the Health Care December 7, 2008— About 10.3 million Americans were unemployed in November, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The number of unemployed has increased by 2.8 million, or 36 percent, since January of this year, and by 4.3 million, or 71 percent, since January 2001. . . . . Some parts of the federal safety net are more responsive to economic distress. The number of people on food stamps set a record in September, with 31.6 million people receiving benefits, up by two million in one month. Nearly 4.4 million people are receiving unemployment insurance benefits, an increase of 60 percent in the past year. But more than half of unemployed workers are not receiving help because they do not qualify or have exhausted their benefits. About 1.7 million families receive cash under the main federal-state welfare program, little changed from a year earlier. Welfare serves about 4 of 10 eligible families and fewer than one in four poor children. NYTimes                           Single-Payer Health Care Would Stimulate Economy

At Columbia, Faith of Some in President Is ShakenSeptember 1, 2011 Several Columbia University professors said this week that the recent resignations of two high-ranking black administrators have shaken their confidence in the institution’s president, Lee C. Bollinger, and reignited concerns among their colleagues about other aspects of his leadership. . . .

 Many professors support their president, including his handling of diversity. Almost 15 percent of Columbia freshmen last year were black, which the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education said was the largest percentage of any of the top 30 universities in U.S. News & World Report’s annual rankings. In 2009, the journal reported, 6.3 percent of Columbia’s faculty was black, placing it second among those 30 schools. “I think President Bollinger has a very good record — I don’t doubt his commitment to this,” said Jean E. Howard, an English department professor who was Mr. Bollinger’s vice provost for diversity from 2004 to 2007. “He’ll have some work to do in making sure that what happened this summer is not misunderstood.”NYTimes

Maryland HBCUs Sue State For Racial Discrimination Over FundingBy Alexis Garrett Stodghill—16 May 2011—A civil rights group is suing Maryland’s Higher Education Commission for allegedly discriminating against the state’s four historically black colleges. The plaintiffs argue that Morgan State University, Coppin State University, Bowie State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore have underdeveloped programs because black schools are funded in a manner that puts predominately white schools at a huge advantage. Administrators at Maryland HBCUs believe their institutions are deprived of the tools needed to create competitive curricula, while being forced to wait much longer to receive appropriated monies. The results are outdated infrastructures and inferior courses leading to low student retention. The Baltimore Sun reports that: “Parity among higher-education institutions has been an issue in the state and country for centuries, and the lawsuit recounts 200 years of [racist] history[.]” . . . NewsOne  Changing the HBCU Narrative (Secretary Arne Duncan

Martin David Jenkins at Morgan State 22 Years

Dr. Martin D. Jenkins, PhD (September 4, 1904–1978) was an African American educator, known for his pioneering work in the field of education. He graduated with a B.S. in Engineering in 1925,from Howard University. Upon earning an engineering degree from Howard, Jenkins became a partner with his father in a Terre Haute highway contracting business while taking classes at State Normal. He secured an A.B. degree in Education from Indiana State in 1931 and, on September 7, 1927, wed Elizabeth Lacy. After teaching briefly at Virginia State College (now Virginia State University), Jenkins began graduate work at Northwestern University under Terre Haute native and Indiana State alumnus, Paul A. Witty. He earned a master’s in 1933 and a doctorate in education in 1935. His dissertation was a socio-psychological study of African-American children of superior intelligence.Before becoming President of Morgan State College of Baltimore in 1948, Jenkins was registrar and professor of education at North Carolina A&T (1935–1937); dean of instruction at Cheyney State (Pa.) Teachers College (now Cheyney University) (1937–1938); and professor of education, Howard University (1938–1948).

“The Supreme Court has surrendered. . . . It has destroyed the Civil Rights Bills, and converted the Republican Party into a party of money rather than a party of morals."  -- Frederick Douglass, 1894   

Black Studies in the Age of Obama

By Dr. Muhammad Ahmad
 Conference Co- Convener,  Chairman, PCIAS Inc.

Jordan Flaherty. Media as a Weapon: New Orleans' 2-Cent  (May 22, 2009)

Hip Hop Resistance in Gaza (June 5, 2009)

Nooses and a legal lynching in Jena, Louisiana   Jena Ignites a Movement  

K-Ville Cop TV Show   Media Crisis and Grassroots Response

The Price of Racial Reconciliation  / Contents White Nationalism  / White Nationalism  Reviews 

 Introduction White Nationalism  / Legitimacy to Lead   

American Uprising

The Untold Story of America’s Largest Slave Revolt

By Daniel Rasmussen

In January 1811, a group of around 500 enslaved men, dressed in military uniforms and armed with guns, cane knives, and axes, rose up from the slave plantations around New Orleans and set out to conquer the city. They decided that they would die before they would work another day of back—breaking labor in the hot Louisiana sun. Ethnically diverse, politically astute, and highly organized, this slave army challenged not only the economic system of plantation agriculture but also American expansion. Their march represented the largest act of armed resistance against slavery in the history of the United States—and one of the defining moments in the history of New Orleans and the nation.


Letter to the Wall Street Journal
By William R. Harvey, President of Hampton University
Chairman, President’s Advisory Board on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

HBCUs Table  / A Shift in Direction at Howard  /  State of HBCU Archives Love Letter to Gay and Lesbian Youth

Khalil Gibran Muhammad

Great-Grandson of Nation of Islam Leader Elijah Muhammad

Chosen New Director of Schomburg Center

Black Consciousness in Brazil

By Italo Ramos

Left of Black— Jelani Cobb and Bassey Ikpi  / Left of Black— Nathaniel Friedman and Bomani Jones / Slavoj Zizek—Are we living in the end times?

What’s Going On: Black Studies and the Arts

Historically, Black artists and scholars have used their work to investigate and articulate the heart of the global Black experience. We seek work that addresses innovative ways visual art, music, poetry, literature, dance and other art forms critique, illuminate and/or bear witness to problems and solutions to critical issues in k-12 and postsecondary education. These issues include but are not limited to use of the arts as an integral part of the curriculum, to critique or explore the achievement gap, to report on the consequences of No Child Left Behind, use of the arts in Teacher Education programs, and the experiences of Black artist scholars in academia. We are interested in author's doing qualitative research using interpretive methods including auto/ethnography, ethnography, poetic inquiry, narrative, and ethnodrama; as well as interview and focus groups. What's Going On welcomes work from all educational disciplines and will also consider collaborative book projects on the cutting edge of crucial issues facing Black people today pertinent to the field.

Help me spread the word about Peter Lang's, Black Studies and Critical Thinking (BSCT) series and contact me at  or  with questions about What's Going On or to suggest folks who might be interested in submitting proposals. Also, note the other series editors and their areas below.

Peace, Mary E. Weems, Series Editor, Black Studies and Critical Thinking, Peter Lang Publishing

Other Series Editors

Marsha Darling, History

E. Patrick Johnson, LGBT  

Judy Alston, Black Leadership 

Judson L. Jeffries, Political Science

 Ernest Morrell, Youth & Childhood Culture

Mitchell Rice, Public Policy & Administration

 R. Deborah Davis, Education

Sandra Jackson, Black Women and Gender Studies


Basil Davidson obituary—By Victoria Brittain—9 July 2010—Davidson [(9 November 1914 – 9 July 2010) a British historian, writer and Africanist] was enthused early on by the end of British colonialism and the prospects of pan-Africanism in the 1960s, and he wrote copiously and with warmth about newly independent Ghana and its leader, Kwame Nkrumah. He went to work for a year at the University of Accra in 1964. Later he threw himself into the reporting of the African liberation wars in the Portuguese colonies, particularly in Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau. . . . In the 1980s, with most of the African liberation wars now won—except for South Africa's— Davidson turned much of his attention to more theoretical questions about the future of the nation state in Africa. He remained a passionate advocate of pan-Africanism. In 1988 he made a long and dangerous journey into Eritrea, writing a persuasive defence of the nationalists' right to independence from Ethiopia, and an equally eloquent attack on the revolutionary leader Colonel Mengistu and the regime that had overthrown Haile Selassie. Guardian

Definition of Negro 1910-1911

Excerpts Compiled

By Baffour Amankwatia II [Asa G. Hilliard III]

(22 August 1933-13 August 2007)

The Death and Life of the Great American School System

How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education

By Diane Ravitch

As an education historian and former assistant secretary of education, Ravitch has witnessed the trends in public education over the past 40 years and has herself swung from public-school advocate to market-driven accountability and choice supporter back to public-school advocate. With passion and insight, she analyzes research and draws on interviews with educators, philanthropists, and business executives to question the current direction of reform of public education. In the mid-1990s, the movement to boost educational standards failed on political concerns; next came the emphasis on accountability with its reliance on standardized testing. Now educators are worried that the No Child Left Behind mandate that all students meet proficiency standards by 2014 will result in the dismantling of public schools across the nation. Ravitch analyzes the impact of choice on public schools, attempts to quantify quality teaching, and describes the data wars with advocates for charter and traditional public schools. Ravitch also critiques the continued reliance on a corporate model for school reform and the continued failure of such efforts to emphasize curriculum. Conceding that there is no single solution, Ravitch concludes by advocating for strong educational values and revival of strong neighborhood public schools. For readers on all sides of the school-reform debate, this is a very important book.—Vanessa Bush   The Myth of Charter Schools  /  Why I Changed My Mind About School Reform

Runoko Rashidi -- Delany and Blyden   Niger and the National Museum    African Libraries Project  Runoko Rashidi    The Black Presence in the Bible

Runoko in Budapest   / A Tribute to Ivan Van Sertima

The Gardens of Democracy: A New American Story

of Citizenship, the Economy, and the Role of Government

By Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer

American democracy is informed by the 18th century’s most cutting edge thinking on society, economics, and government. We’ve learned some things in the intervening 230 years about self interest, social behaviors, and how the world works. Now, authors Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer argue that some fundamental assumptions about citizenship, society, economics, and government need updating. For many years the dominant metaphor for understanding markets and government has been the machine. Liu and Hanauer view democracy not as a machine, but as a garden. A successful garden functions according to the inexorable tendencies of nature, but it also requires goals, regular tending, and an understanding of connected ecosystems. The latest ideas from science, social science, and economics—the cutting-edge ideas of today—generate these simple but revolutionary ideas: (The economy is not an efficient machine. It’s an effective garden that need tending. Freedom is responsibility. Government should be about the big what and the little how. True self interest is mutual interest. We’re all better off when we’re all better off. The model of citizenship depends on contagious behavior, hence positive behavior begets positive behavior

Joseph H. Rainey


Joseph Hayne Rainey was the first African-American man to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. Rainey was born the son of a slave who bought his freedom. After he was conscripted to work on the Confederate fortifications, he escaped to Bermuda and stayed away until the end of the Civil War. He was appointed to fill out the term of the U.S. congressman from South Carolina who had been expelled from Congress and was reelected four times (1870-1879). During Reconstruction, Rainey strove for moderate treatment of the South while working to protect and expand civil rights. PictureHistory

The Fourth World and the Marxists   Letters from Young Activists   Lessons from France   Paris Is Burning  "The Pyres of Autumn" Responses to Jean Baudrillard   Geraldine Robinson  remembers The Family of Cow Tom :The Connection of Africans &  the Civilized Tribes


Teaching Diaspora Literature

Muslim American Literature as an Emerging Field
By Mohja Kahf

Langston Hughes "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" Poem / Interview: Malcolm X

The African Medicine Women of New Jersey  /  Try Jah Love (Third World 1982)  /Chinua Achebe, Pt 3/3 / Champagne & Reefer (Muddy Waters)

Yale Slavery and Abolition Portal

This site is designed to help researchers and Yale students find primary sources related to slavery, abolition, and resistance within the university's many libraries and galleries. Across the top of the website, you will find the chance to view relevant collections in each Yale institution. You can view items across the different institutions by entering a keyword or phrase on the search page.

You can also sort items according to a particular period, place, or topic by selecting a category from the tag cloud. Under links, you will find a collection of electronic databases that provide access to digital resources with significant relevant content. Yale     My Archival Experience

Everybody Loves the Sunshine (Incognito) Superwoman, Where Were You When I Needed You (Stevie Wonder)

Sheila Johnson: America’s First Black Woman Billionaire

Interviewed by Kam Williams 


The Myth of Charter Schools

By Diane Ravitch

Why I Changed My Mind About School Reform. Most significantly, we are not producing a generation of students who are more knowledgable, and better prepared for the responsibilities of citizenship. That is why I changed my mind about the current direction of school reform. WSJ

 Mass incarceration of black men hurts black women—Black women tend to stay in school longer than black men. Looking only at the non-incarcerated population, black women are 40% more likely to go to college. They are also more likely than white women to seek work. One reason why so many black women strive so hard is because they do not expect to split the household bills with a male provider. And the educational disparity creates its own tensions. If you are a college-educated black woman with a good job and you wish to marry a black man who is your socioeconomic equal, the odds are not good.Economist

My Holy Bible for African-American Children

King James Version. by Cheryl and Wade Hudson

Book Review by Kam Williams

Koran Exordium: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of Creation. The Compassionate, the Merciful, King of the Last Judgment. You alone we worship. To You alone we pray. Guide us to the straight path, the path of those whom You have favored, not those who have incurred Your wrath, nor  those who have gone astray. Amen.  Luqman -- In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful / The Name of Allah Be Round About Us

John Hope Franklin WPSU Booknotes (Wilson J.  Moses) Saturday, April 04, 2009  / What Can Be Done?

The History of White People

By Nell Irvin Painter


David Walker Discusses the Education of the Negro, 1830

Subconscious connection between blacks, apes may reinforce subtle bias -- Penn State Faculty/Staff (ALL) Newswire - 03.06.08

Ghana Freestyle / Part I—Addressing Sexual Terrorism  / Abbey Lincoln—Where Are The African Gods? Max Roach—All Africa / Abbey LincolnDown here Below

John Hope Franklin, Scholar Who Transformed African-American History, Dies at 94—He is perhaps best known to the public for his work on President Clinton’s 1997 task force on race. But his reputation as a scholar was made in 1947 with the publication of his book, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African-Americans, which is still considered the definitive account of the black experience in America. “My challenge was to weave into the fabric of American history enough of the presence of blacks so that the story of the United States could be told adequately and fairly,” he said when the 50th anniversary of the book was celebrated in 1997. “That was terribly important. . . . Looking back, I can plead guilty of having provided only a sketch of the work I laid out for myself.” DukeNews     John Hope Franklin WPSU Booknotes (Wilson J.  Moses)

Three victims of the horrific shootings

at the University of Alabama at Huntsville

Amy Bishop, a 42-year old, biology professor

Maria_Ragland_Davis was a 52-year-old associate professor of biology who specialized in plant pathology and biotechnology. She had been on the university’s faculty since 2002. Dr. Davis was a graduate of the University of Michigan. She held a master’s degree in chemical engineering and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from North Carolina State University

Adriel D. Johnson, Sr. was an associate professor of biology and had been on the faculty at the university for more than 20 years. A longtime mentor of minority students, Dr. Johnson was director of the campus chapter of the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation. Professor Johnson was a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis. He held master’s degrees from Tennessee Technological University and the University of Alabama at Huntsville. He earned his Ph.D. at North Carolina State University.

Dr. G. K. Podila, Chair Department of Biological Sciences (September 14, 1957 – February 12, 2010) was an Indian American biologist, noted academician, and faculty member at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. . . . killed in a shooting allegedly by Amy Bishop at the university on February 12, 2010. [He had]. . . a particular interest in the ecology of Populus and their mycorrhizal symbionts. . . .G. K. Podila received a B.Sc. degree from Nagarjuna University in India. He obtained a Master's degree from Louisiana State University in 1983 and a PhD in molecular biology from Indiana State University in 1987.

Still I Rise: A Graphic History of African-Americans

by Roland Laird with Taneshia Nash Laird Illustrated by Elihu “Adofo” Bay Foreword by Charles Johnson

Book Review by Kam Williams


Black History Is American History

By Eric Holder, Attorney General


"Though this nation has proudly thought of itself as an ethnic melting pot, in things racial

we have always been and continue to be, in too many ways, essentially a nation of cowards.

Darwin's Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin's Views on Human Evolution---"Desmond and Moore’s fascinating new look at Darwin forces us to revise and expand the way we look at this revolutionary figure, and to see him wrestling with moral as well as scientific questions. And it is a reminder of just how much the issue of slavery loomed over everything in the nineteenth century, including even fields that were apparently far distant." —Adam Hochschild, author of King Leopold’s Ghost and Bury the Chains-

"This exciting book is sure to create a stir. Already widely admired for their pathbreaking biography of Charles Darwin, Desmond and Moore here give an entirely new interpretation of Darwin’s views on humankind, bringing together scholarship and sparkling narrative pace to explore theories of ape ancestry and racial origins in the Victorian period. Darwin’s part in making the modern world will never be the same again!" —Janet Browne, Aramont Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University, and author of Charles Darwin: Voyaging

Darwin the Abolitionist (Bruce Gellerman interviews James Moore, author of Darwin's Sacred Cause

National African American History Month 2009

A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America

Some African-American Firsts & Inventions  / Ebony's Fifty Influential Figures in African-American History 

African Retentions & Black Contributions  / Celebrating Black History 365


Robert J. Norrell. Up from History: The Life of Booker T. Washington

Illustrated. 508 pp. The Belknap Press / Harvard University Press.

To the extent that Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) is remembered at all today, he is usually misremembered, which is a travesty...His unwillingness to practice protest politics, however, has earned him the scorn of many modern-day critics, who dismiss him as too meek in his dealings with whites...In Up From History, a compelling biography, Robert J. Norrell restores the Wizard of Tuskegee to his rightful place in the black pantheon...Many criticisms of Washington in more recent decades have echoed those of his contemporary black nemesis, W.E.B. Du Bois…Much has been made of this rivalry, but the relevant point is that the two men differed mainly in emphasis, not goals...Putting their differences into proper perspective is yet another way that Up From History serves as a useful corrective.

—Jason L. Riley (Wall Street Journal)

The City of Mumbai and the Buddhist Cave at Ajanta By Runoko Rashidi 27 November 2008

An Open Letter to President Barack Obama

and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan

 From Educators of African Ancestry

Philip Dray. Capitol Men: The Epic Story of Reconstruction Through the Lives of the First Black Congressmen. Houghton Mifflin Company 2008 -- Philip Foner Review

In this grand and compelling new history of Reconstruction, Pulitzer Prize finalist Philip Dray shines a light on a little known group of men: the nation's first black members of Congress. These men played a critical role in pushing for much-needed reforms in the wake of a traumatic civil war, including public education for all children, equal rights, and protection from Klan violence. But they have been either neglected or maligned by most historians -- their "glorious failure" chalked up to corruption and "ill-preparedness."

In this beautifully written, magnificently researched book, Dray overturns that thinking. He draws on archival documents, newspaper coverage, and congressional records to show that men like P.B.S. Pinchback of Louisiana (who started out as a riverboat gambler), South Carolina's Robert Smalls (who hijacked a Confederate steamer and delivered it to Union troops), and Robert Brown Elliott (who bested the former vice president of the Confederacy in a stormy debate on the House floor) were eloquent, creative, and often quite effective -- they were simply overwhelmed by the brutal forces of reaction. Covering the fraught period between the Emancipation Proclamation and Jim Crow, Dray reclaims the reputations of men who, though flawed, led a valiant struggle for social justice.—Publisher's note

 Race and Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (1995)

By Adam Fairclough

Hailed as one of the best treatments of the civil rights movement, Race and Democracy is also one of the most comprehensive and detailed studies of the movement at the state level. This far-reaching and dramatic narrative ranges in time from the founding of the New Orleans branch of the NAACP in 1915 to the beginning of Edwin Edwards's first term as governor in 1972. In his new preface Adam Fairclough brings the narrative up to date, demonstrating the persistence of racial inequalities and the continuing importance of race as a factor in politics. When Hurricane Katrina exposed the race issue in a new context, Fairclough argues, political leaders mishandled the disaster. A deep-seated culture of corruption, he concludes, compromises the ability of public officials to tackle intransigent problems of urban poverty and inadequate schools.

The Beautiful Struggle ( Acklyn Lynch)

Why are 1 in 9 young Black men in prison?‏

Down with the Clintons (Floyd Hayes)

A Brief for Whitey (Buchanan)

Response to Barack Obama Speech on Race .

Kerner Commission Report Forty Years After

In More Than Just Race, the Harvard sociologist William Julius Wilson recaps his own important research over the past 20 years as well as some of the best urban sociology of his peers to make a convincing case that both institutional and systemic impediments and cultural deficiencies keep poor blacks from escaping poverty and the ghetto.
The systemic impediments include both the legacy of racism and dramatic economic changes that have fallen with disproportionate severity on poor blacks. State-enforced racial discrimination created the ghetto: in the early 20th century local governments separated the races into segregated neighborhoods by force of law, and later, whites used private agreements and violent intimidation to keep blacks out of white neighborhoods. Worst, and most surprising of all, the federal government played a major role in encouraging the racism of private actors and state governments. Until the 1960s, federal housing agencies engaged in racial red lining, refusing to guarantee mortgages in inner-city neighborhoods; private lenders quickly followed suit.

Rice hits U.S. 'birth defect'— Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said yesterday that the United States still has trouble dealing with race because of a national "birth defect" that denied black Americans the opportunities given to whites at the country's very founding. "Black Americans were a founding population," she said. "Africans and Europeans came here and founded this country together — Europeans by choice and Africans in chains. That's not a very pretty reality of our founding." As a result, Miss Rice told editors and reporters at The Washington Times, "descendants of slaves did not get much of a head start, and I think you continue to see some of the effects of that." "That particular birth defect makes it hard for us to confront it, hard for us to talk about it, and hard for us to realize that it has continuing relevance for who we are today," she said. Race has become an issue in this year's presidential campaign, which prompted a much-discussed speech last week by Sen. Barack Obama, one of the two remaining contenders for the Democratic nomination. Miss Rice declined to comment on the campaign, saying only that it was "important" that Mr. Obama "gave it for a whole host of reasons."

But she spoke forcefully on the subject, citing personal and family experience to illustrate "a paradox and contradiction in this country," which "we still haven't resolved." On the one hand, she said, race in the U.S. "continues to have effects" on public discussions and "the deepest thoughts that people hold." On the other, "enormous progress" has been made, which allowed her to become the nation's chief diplomat. "America doesn't have an easy time dealing with race," Miss Rice said, adding that members of her family have "endured terrible humiliations." "What I would like understood as a black American is that black Americans loved and had faith in this country even when this country didn't love and have faith in them — and that's our legacy," she said.  WashingtonTimes

Jesse Helms, White Racist –What really sets Jesse Helms apart is that he is the last prominent unabashed white racist politician in this country -- a title that one hopes will now be permanently retired. A few editorials and columns came close to saying that. But the squeamishness of much of the press in characterizing Helms for what he is suggests an unwillingness to confront the reality of race in our national life. . . What is unique about Helms—and from my viewpoint, unforgivable -- is his willingness to pick at the scab of the great wound of American history, the legacy of slavery and segregation, and to inflame racial resentment against African Americans. Many of the accounts of Helms's retirement linked him with another prospective retiree, Sen. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. Both these Senate veterans switched from the Democratic to the Republican Party when the Democrats began pressing for civil rights legislation in the 1960s. But there is a great difference between them. Thurmond, who holds the record for the longest anti-civil rights filibuster, accepted change. For three decades he has treated African Americans and black institutions as respectfully as he treats all his other constituents. To the best of my knowledge, Helms has never done what the late George Wallace did well before his death -- recant and apologize for his use of racial issues. And that use was blatant. WashingtonPost


Obama Reasons with Black Protestor

Thirty-one year-old Diop Olugbulu

of the International People's Democratic Uhuru Movement

 An Open Letter to Barack Obama   /  Obama Wont Address Specific Black Concerns (Ford)

Paris Hilton suggests compromise

Al Sharpton vs Tavis Smiley pt1 Barack Obama & the Black Agenda: Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3  / No You Can't (Featuring John Boehner)

Send contributions to: ChickenBones: A Journal / 2005 Arabian Drive / Finksburg, MD 21048-- I became aware of Rudy Lewis’ labor of love a few short months ago during a visit to Kalamu ya Salaam’s e-drum listserv. As soon as I saw the title of the journal I knew it was about Black folks, and the power of the written word.  A quick click took me into a journal that’s long on creativity, highlighting well-known, little known, and a little known writers, and commitment to the empowerment of Black folks. I contacted Rudy to ask if he’d consider publishing some of my work. His response was immediate, and a couple of days after I’d forwarded some poems to him—they were part of ChickenBones. What I didn’t know was that this journal has been surviving for the last five years with very little outside financial support. . .  If we want journals like this to “thrive” we need to support them with more than our website hits, praise, and submissions for publication consideration.

—Peace, Mary E. Weems (January 2007)                       

Thought of Today—Power that works for righteousness—Finally, there is, somewhere in the Universe a "Power that works for righteousness," and that leads men to do justice to one another. To this power, working upon the hearts and consciences of men, the Negro can always appeal. He has the right upon his side, and in the end the right will prevail. The Negro will, in time, attain to full manhood and citizenship throughout the United States. No better guaranty of this is needed than a comparison of his present with his past. Toward this he must do his part, as lies within his power and his opportunity.

But it will be, after all, largely a white man's conflict, fought out in the forum of the public conscience. The Negro, though eager enough when opportunity offered, had comparatively little to do with the abolition of slavery, which was a vastly more formidable task than will be the enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment. —Charles W. Chestnutt

Drusilla Dunjee-Houston's

Wonderful Ethiopians of the Cushite Empire, Book II

Origin of Civilization from the Cushites. Edited by Peggy Brooks-Bertram

  Review by Larry Obadele Williams

Obituary of Joe Walker Muhammad Speaks International Correspondent



Banished: How Whites Drove Blacks Out of Town in America

                        Film Review by Kam Williams

Uncrowned Queens Instrumental in Righting an 86-Year-Old Injustice


Black Feminist Thought

Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment

By Patricia Hill Collins

In spite of the double burden of racial and gender discrimination, African-American women have developed a rich intellectual tradition that is not widely known. In Black Feminist Thought, originally published in 1990, Patricia Hill Collins set out to explore the words and ideas of Black feminist intellectuals and writers, both within the academy and without. Here Collins provides an interpretive framework for the work of such prominent Black feminist thinkers as Angela Davis, bell hooks, Alice Walker, and Audre Lorde. Drawing from fiction, poetry, music and oral history, the result is a superbly crafted and revolutionary book that provided the first synthetic overview of Black feminist thought and its canon.

cover of Black Feminist Thought

Alberto O. Cappas. An Educational Pledge -- A positive journey for our youth. For Schools: Teachers, Parents, & Students: "One cannot keep hope alive if no plan of action is in place" Check out our Pledge T-Shirt at  /

Founding Myths: Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past  by Ray Raphael / Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect / The Myth of the Negro Past







The Works of William Sanders Scarborough

Black Classicist and Race Leader

Edited by Michele Valerie Ronnick

The Autobiography of William Sanders Scarborough  

Egypt Tombs Suggest Pyramids Not Built by Slaves / Cleopatra’s mother 'was African' /

Writings by Rose Ure Mezu  

Chinua Achebe: The Man and His Works (2006) /  An Africana Blueprint for Living  /  Igbo Marriage (photos and commentary) / Chinua Achebe The Man and His Works

Black History Month 2009

We went into slavery a piece of property; we came out American citizens. We went into slavery pagans; we came out Christians. We went into slavery without a language; we came out speaking the proud Anglo-Saxon tongue. We went into slavery with slave chains clanking about our wrists; we came out with the American ballot in our hands. Progress, progress is the law of nature; under God it shall be our eternal guiding star.Booker Taliaferro Washington

After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world, — a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world.W. E. B. Du Bois

God and Nature first made us what we are, and then out of our own created genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow always that great law. Let the sky and God be our limit and Eternity our measurement.—Marcus Garvey

You know my friends, there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled by the iron feet of oppression ....If we are wrong, the Supreme Court of this nation is wrong. If we are wrong, the Constitution of the United States is wrong. And if we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong. If we are wrong, Jesus of Nazareth was merely a utopian dreamer that never came down to Earth. If we are wrong, justice is a lie, love has no meaning. And we are determined here in Montgomery to work and fight until justice runs down like water, and righteousness like a mighty stream.—M. L. King

<-------artist Chuck Siler    /  Celebrating Black History 365

Invention of the White Race

By Theodore  W. Allen

Theodore Allen begins Volume 1 by reviewing the many histories of American racism written in the 20th century. Dividing the arguments into the psycho-cultural school and the socio-economic school of thought, he teases out the strengths and flaws of their scholarship. Allen then posits racial oppression as a deliberate ruling-class decision (constantly undergoing renewal) to prevent property-less European Americans from allying themselves with enslaved and free African Americans by offering the European Americans privileges based on white skin. His solution is to study "racism" rather than "race" because studies of race always devolve onto discussions of the body--onto those who are perceived to possess race--and thus avoids the real issue. . . . It is a strong, well researched, tightly argued work. He proves that the "white race" can be "gotten on a technicality" because it was and is indeed an invented rather than a natural category. Amazon Reviewer

Ben Tillman of South Carolina—We of the South have never recognized the right of the negro to govern white men, and we never will. We have never believed him to be the equal of the white man, and we will not submit to his gratifying his lust on our wives and daughters without lynching him.The Blight That Is Still With Us

Words for the NaiveLaissez-faire, free competition begets a war of the wits, which these economists encourage, quite as destructive to the weak, simple, and guileless, as the war of the sword....   In such society the astute capitalist, who is very skilful and cunning, gets the advantage of every one with whom he competes or deals; the sensible man with moderate means gets the advantage of most with whom he has business, but the mass of the simple and poor are outwitted and cheated by everybody.George Fitzhugh was a slaveholding racist, author Sociology for the South (1854)

John Ridge (1823), Cherokee leader, a man of considerable wealth, supplied . . . this scornful definition of racial oppression of the Indian -- An Indian . . . is frowned upon by the meanest peasant, and the scum of the earth are considered sacred in comparison to the son of nature. If an Indian is educated in the sciences, has a good knowledge of the classics, astronomy, mathematics, moral and natural philosophy and his conduct equally modest and polite, yet he is an Indian, and the most stupid and illiterate white man will disdain and triumph over this worthy individual. It is disgusting to enter the house of a white man and be stared at full face in inquisitive ignorance. Thurman Wilkins, Cherokee Tragedy: The Story of the Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People (1970), p. 145

Wilson Moses Files:   Andromeda 19 Afrotopia   Creative Conflict    Dwight David Eisenhower  Teflon Sense of History   Uncle Jeff and His Contempos 

 The Eternal Linkage of Literature and Society     New Orleans and American Exceptionalism   Knowledge and Ignorance: Two Barriers to Learning


The Exhilarating Generosity of Asa Hilliard

By Peggy Brooks-Bertram


Asa G. Hilliard III Obituary   If I Ain't African   (Glenis Redmond) 

Racial Integration Has Run Its Course—The plain fact is that a great many white Americans, including many with otherwise liberal views on race, do not want their offspring attending schools with more than a token number of black and Latino children. Whatever their status, they do not wish to be burdened by efforts to correct the results of racial discrimination that they do not believe they caused. Their opposition may not be as violent or as vast as it was during the early years after the Brown decision, but it is widespread, deeply felt, and if history is any indication not likely to change any time soon. Derrick Bell. Desegregations Demise.  The Chronicle of Higher Education 

No Tears for Brown v Board of Education—[Mr. Marshall's] response was that seating black children next to white children in school had never been the point. It had been necessary only because all-white school boards were generously financing schools for white children while leaving black students in overcrowded, decrepit buildings with hand-me-down books and underpaid teachers. He had wanted black children to have the right to attend white schools as a point of leverage over the biased spending patterns of the segregationists who ran schools — both in the 17 states where racially separate schools were required by law and in other states where they were a matter of culture.— Juan Williams   Education & History

Virginia & the Board of Trade The ruling class took special pains to be sure that the people they ruled were propagandized in the moral and legal ethos of white-supremacism. Provisions were included for that purpose in the 1705 "Act concerning Servants and Slaves" and in the Act of 1723 "directing the trial of Slaves . . . and for the better government of Negroes, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free." For consciousness-raising purposes (to prevent "pretense of ignorance"), the laws mandated that parish clerks or churchwardens, once each spring and fall at the close of Sunday service, should read ("publish") these laws in full to the congregants. Sheriffs were ordered to have the same done at the courthouse door at the June or July term of court. . . . The general public was regularly and systematically subjected to official white supremacist agitation. It was to be drummed into the minds of the people that, for the first time, no free African-American was to dare to lift his or her hand against a "Christian, not being a negro, mulatto or Indian"; that African-American freeholders were no longer to be allowed to vote; that the provision of a previous enactment [1691] was being reinforced against the mating of English and Negroes as producing "abominable mixture" and "spurious" issue; that, as provided in the 1723 law for preventing freedom plots by African-American bond-laborers, "any white person . . . found in company with any [illegally congregated] slaves" was to be be fined (along with free African Americans or Indians so offending) with a fine of fifteen shillings, or to "receive, on his, her, or their bare backs, for every such offense, twenty lashes well laid on." Invention of the White Race  (vol. 2, p. 251)       Virginia Expresses Profound Regret



Strange Fruit in Jena

Louisiana Case Looks a Lot Like Duke Lacrosse Frame-Up   

By Kam Williams

Nooses and a legal lynching in Jena, Louisiana   YouTube - The Jena Six

State of the Dream  White Privilege Shapes the U.S.   State Of Black America   state of black nation 2005   The State of the Dream 2005

  Myths of Low-Wage Workers      Skip Gates and the Talented Fifth  Responses to Skip Gates  The State of HBCUs   The State of Black Journalism  

Lincoln on Race and Slavery

Dr. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Interviewed by Kam Williams

School Security Guards Beat Teen over Cake Spill: PalmdaleIt all started with a piece of birthday cake, but it ended up with a high school girl being beaten and expelled. The incident, which occurred last week at Knight High School in Palmdale, was caught on a cell phone camera. Michael Brownlee was live in Palmdale with what the girl and her mother plan to do now— Clearly, Injustice is not just in Jena—Cynthia McKinney Leading the Negro into Modernity

Freedom's Journal

The First African-American Newspaper

By Jacqueline Bacon

Book Review by Kam Williams

James Edward Jackson Jr.—born in Richmond, Va., on 29 November 1914, the son of James and Clara Kersey Jackson—died 1 September 2007 in Brooklyn. His father was a pharmacist. The family lived in Jackson Ward, a segregated section for Richmond blacks. In 1931 (at 16), Jackson entered Virginia Union University. He graduated three years later with a degree in chemistry. In 1937 (at 22), Jackson received a degree in pharmacy from Howard University. But in his last year at Howard, he helped start the Southern Negro Youth Congress, which organized strikes by tobacco workers, mostly black women, who were paid $5 a week. A union representing 5,000 tobacco workers soon gained recognition. . . .  Jackson joined the Communist Party in 1947. He held important positions in the Party and was one of 21 Communist Party members who were indicted in 1951, at the height of the McCarthy era, for, among other things, teaching classes on violent revolution. The case was front-page news around the country. In 1952 Jackson became the Southern secretary for the Party and a staunch advocate of civil rights. NYTimes

Moses Files:   Afrotopia   Creative Conflict    Dwight David Eisenhower  Teflon Sense of History   Uncle Jeff and His Contempos 

 The Eternal Linkage of Literature and Society     New Orleans and American Exceptionalism   Andromeda 19


Visit Our Store (Books, DVDs, Music, and more)







Supreme Court Halts Racial Integration—“The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race,” he said. His side of the debate, the chief justice said, was “more faithful to the heritage of Brown,” the landmark 1954 decision that declared school segregation unconstitutional. “When it comes to using race to assign children to schools, history will be heard,” Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. . . . While Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas and Samuel A. Alito Jr. joined his opinion on the schools case in full, the fifth member of the majority, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, did not. . . . Justice Kennedy said achieving racial diversity, “avoiding racial isolation” and addressing “the problem of de facto resegregation in schooling” were “compelling interests” that a school district could constitutionally pursue as long as it did so through programs that were sufficiently “narrowly tailored.” . . . “It is not often in the law that so few have so quickly changed so much,” Justice Breyer said. . . . “This is a decision that the court and the nation will come to regret.” . . . Justices John Paul Stevens, David H. Souter and Ruth Bader Ginsburg signed Justice Breyer’s opinion. Justice Stevens wrote a dissenting opinion of his own, as pointed as it was brief.  Linda Greenhouse. Justices Limit the Use of Race in School Plans for Integration. NYTimes

On Cecil Brown's Dude, Where's My Black Studies Department  -- Thus Africans and Caribbean Negroes were in many cases less radical, even though much of the African American radical tradition comes from immigrants, such as Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, Kwame Toure, Malcolm X and Farrakhan. As Amina Baraka informed me, "We're all West Indians." And this is true because kidnapped Africans were brought to the Caribbean for "the breaking in," then transferred to North America and elsewhere. And we must ask ourselves would we rather have a radical immigrant African in black studies or a reactionary Negro only because he is a Negro. Marvin X,  Africa or America: The Emphasis in Black Studies Programs

Radicalism in the South Since Reconstruction

Edited by Chris Green, Rachel Rubin, and James Smethurst

Days of US Slavery Closer Than We Think

Al Sharpton Learns His Forebears Were Thurmonds’ Slaves

Sharpton's great-grandfather was a slave who was owned by relatives of Senator Strom Thurmond,

the longtime arch-segregationist who ran for president as a Dixiecrat in 1948
The Age  NYTimes

Slavery And The Making Of America, PBS -- Slavery   Atlanta Exposition Address 

Educating Our Children  /   The African World  /  Inside the Caribbean  /  Baltimore Page  / Support ChickenBones

The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, And the Ambiguities of American Reform . Edited by Steven Mintz and John Stauffer

A collective effort to present a new kind of moral history, this volume seeks to show how the study of the past can illuminate profound ethical and philosophical issues. More specifically, the contributors address a variety of questions raised by the history of American slavery. How did freedom-personal, civic, and political-become one of the most cherished values in the Western world? How has the language of slavery been applied to other instances of exploitation and depersonalization? To what extent is America's high homicide rate a legacy of slavery? Did the abolitionist movement's tendency to view slavery as a product of sin, rather than as a structural and economic problem, accelerate or impede emancipation? . . . . They also offer fresh perspectives on key individuals, from Benjamin Franklin and Frederick Douglass to Harriet Jacobs and John Brown, and shed new light on the differences between female and male critiques of slavery, the defense of slavery by the South's intellectual elite, and Catholic attitudes toward slavery and abolition.

Carnegie Libraries -- Introduction By  R.R. Bowker Carnegie Table  Carnegie Sketch   Method of  Giving  Tuskegee Library & R.R. Taylor  Bibliography Table

Chronology in Black Librarianship    Monroe Work Preface   Monroe Work2  Monroe Work Intro    Anson Phelps Stokes   Fifty Influential Figures

The Commission on Interracial Cooperation  / Finding a Way Out of Lynching & Racial Violence  /  The Tragedy of Lynching






Robin Kadison Berson.

Marching to a Different Drummer: Unrecognized Heroes of American History

Marching Reviews  / Anna Julia Cooper  / Tunis George Campbell   / Elizabeth Freeman  / Lucy Craft Laney  / Rev. Wesley J. Gaines  / Special Order 15

American Women's History

See Also the bibliographies of these files 

Bolden, Tony. The Book of African-American Women: 150 Crusaders, Creators, and Uplifters.  Adams Media Corporation, 1996.

Kazickas, Jurate, and Lynn Sherr. Susan B. Anthony Slept Here. A Guide to American Women's Landmarks. Random House, 1994

Nevergold, Barbara A. Seals  and Peggy Brooks-Bertram. Uncrowned Queens:  African American Community Builders. Uncrowned Queens, 2002.

Weatherford, Doris. American Women's History.  Prentice Hall General Reference, 1994

The General Assembly of Virginia Prohibits the Teaching of Slaves, Free Negroes, or Mulattoes to Read or Write, 1831

Frank Snowden Now An Ancestor

Major Scholar of Blacks in Antiquity

author of Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience

& Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks.

Virginia & the Board of Trade The ruling class took special pains to be sure that the people they ruled were propagandized in the moral and legal ethos of white-supremacism. Provisions were included for that purpose in the 1705 "Act concerning Servants and Slaves" and in the Act of 1723 "directing the trial of Slaves . . . and for the better government of Negroes, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free." For consciousness-raising purposes (to prevent "pretense of ignorance"), the laws mandated that parish clerks or churchwardens, once each spring and fall at the close of Sunday service, should read ("publish") these laws in full to the congregants. Sheriffs were ordered to have the same done at the courthouse door at the June or July term of court. . . . The general public was regularly and systematically subjected to official white supremacist agitation. It was to be drummed into the minds of the people that, for the first time, no free African-American was to dare to lift his or her hand against a "Christian, not being a negro, mulatto or Indian"; that African-American freeholders were no longer to be allowed to vote; that the provision of a previous enactment [1691] was being reinforced against the mating of English and Negroes as producing "abominable mixture" and "spurious" issue; that, as provided in the 1723 law for preventing freedom plots by African-American bond-laborers, "any white person . . . found in company with any [illegally congregated] slaves" was to be be fined (along with free African Americans or Indians so offending) with a fine of fifteen shillings, or to "receive, on his, her, or their bare backs, for every such offense, twenty lashes well laid on." Invention of the White Race  (vol. 2, p. 251)       Virginia Expresses Profound Regret

Sussex County: A Tale of Three Centuries  Public Education in Sussex County in Black and White   The Official History of Jerusalem Baptist Church

Lynched Mau Mau Leader Dedan Kimathi

Honored with Statue  in Nairobi -- His Remains Have Yet To Be Found

Milton Allimadi:  The Hearts of Darkness  /  Inventing Africa: New York Times  /  Times Concocted 'Darkest Africa'   

 Uncle Jeff and His Contempos  /  Teflon Sense of History  /  Race in US Politics Syllabus  / Banneker and Jefferson  /  Thomas Jefferson's Negro Family

The Propaganda of History  / Virginia Expresses  Profound Regret

The 10 Biggest Myths About Black History

 by Lerone Bennett  Jr.  

 John H. Clarke Bio

 The Third Door: The Autobiography of an American Negro Woman (1955)

 A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (1996) 

A Philip Randolph

The Biography of Philip Reid

Historical Fiction by Eugene Walton

Igbos in Virginia Enslaved Igbo and the Foundation of Afro-Virginia Slave Culture and Society  A review by Gloria Chuku

Igbo Ideograms In Virginia Cemeteries By Rachel Malcolm-Woods

Atlanta Exposition Address By Booker T. Washington

On 18 September 1895, 111 years ago, Booker T. Washington, a Negro spokesman supported by both Northern and Southern white leaders, spoke before a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. For Houston Baker, this ten-minute speech inaugurated "Afro-American modernism." --Houston A. Baker, Jr., Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (1987), pp. 8-9; 15.

The Black Experience in America is Unique  /   The Fact of Blackness (1952) By Frantz Fanon  / Election Day Returns

The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells

Edited by Miriam DeCosta-Willis

Foreword by Mary Helen Washington. Afterword by Dorothy Sterling

Abell Report on Under-Funding Baltimore Education Demand for Career Education Especially High

On the Need to Refurbish Career and Technology Education (CTE) Programs / Conversations with Rodney, Jonathan, Miriam, Tiger, Kam

A Dream Deferred: A Mournful, Contrarian Dissection

Of the Failed Legacy of Brown v. Board of Education

A Review by Debra J. Dickerson May/June 2004 Issue

Charles J. Ogletree Jr. All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half-Century of Brown v. Board of Education   Norton, 2005

Derrick Bell. Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform.  Oxford University Press, 2005

Clines Reflects on Clemente, Stargell, and the Team of Color  by Danny Torres

Anarcha's Story


By Alexandria C. Lynch, MS III"Anarcha's Story" exposes the Nazi-like experimentation on African-American female Christian slaves by Dr. James Marion Sims  (1813-1883) of South Carolina, the so-called "Father & Founder of of Modern Gynecology. His purported medical advances are still hailed despite his utter butchery and murder of the oppressed (black) and poor (Irish) women of America. Here is a measured and passionate account.


The Fourth World and the Marxists   Letters from Young Activists   Lessons from France   Paris Is Burning  "The Pyres of Autumn" Responses to Jean Baudrillard   Geraldine Robinson  remembers The Family of Cow Tom :The Connection of Africans &  the Civilized Tribes

Jonathan Scott files: Heroic Minds: All the Great Ones Have Been Anti-Imperialist The Niggerization of Palestine The Staying Power of Rap                                   Remembering to Not Forget   If White America Had a Bill Cosby    Reflections on Octavia Butler  Notes on Political Education


The Collapse of Urban Public Schooling

By Floyd W. Hayes, III

The Meritocracy Myth    Responses to Race as a Decoy for Class  Dilemma of Black Urban Education

Rudolph Lewis Remembering My Adult Education Students The Learning Place Northwest (1990-1993)

Poems  Learning to be Black   Heroes of the Hood   Thoughts from the Hood  On the Future

The Venezuelan Revolution 100 Questions-100 Answers

By Chesa Boudin, Gabriel Gonzalez, and Wilmer Rumbos

Book Reviewed by Amin Sharif 

Rodney D. Foxworth, Jr.  School Daze A Naïve Political Treatise   A Report on a Gathering  at Red Emma's   Statistics on the Inequities 

Portrait of a Liberation Scholar   /  The Global Perspective of John Henrik Clarke  

  PanAfrican Nationalism in the Americas   /  John Henrik Clarke—A Great and Mighty Walk

 Transitional Writings on Africa  / Black Arts and Black Power Figures  

Dr. John G. Jackson - Life and Times: Part 1 /Part 2 / Part 3 / Part 4 / Part 5 / Part 6 / Part 7 / Part 8 / Part 9

Sussex County: A Tale of Three Centuries  / Public Education in Sussex County in Black and White   / The Official History of Jerusalem Baptist Church


"The Most Dangerous Black Professor in America"

Along the Color Line -- February 2006

By Manning Marable

 Blacks in Higher Education   Manning Marable, Black Liberation in Conservative America. South End Press, 1997

The Black Experience in America is Unique  /   The Fact of Blackness (1952) By Frantz Fanon    /   Lessons from France

Zero Tolerance: Resisting the Drive for Punishment

What Is the Source of the Dilemma of Black Urban Education?

Social Policy? Class Oppression? Race Prejudice? Lack of Personal Responsibility?

 Responses by Charles, Latorial, Kam, Miriam, Jane, Jeannette, and Rodney

Ongoing Struggles in Black Academia --   Dolan Hubbard , "The Color of Our Classroom"

Cecil Brown, "What black studies lacks"    Floyd Hayes, "Jefferson & Political Philosophy: Notes of Encouragement to Two JHU Students"

On Tuesday, March 28, the Center for Africana Studies presented a talk by Dr. Joy Williamson, assistant professor of education at Stanford U.  She will discuss the Black Student movement at the U of IL in the 1960s and 1970s.  Her book, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-1975, is must reading.  The symposium took place in the Greenhouse, room 110.   Perhaps we can learn how to revive and resurrect Black students, and even Black communities.

Atlanta Constitution on Race Problem    Origin of Segregation     Intermarriage a No-No       Who Wants Integration      The Problem of Integration      The Racial Problem

The Meritocracy Myth A Dollars and Sense interview with Lani Guinier

Responses to Race as a Decoy for Class by Rodney D. Foxworth, Jr. and Rudolph Lewis

Depression Shopping List: 1932 to 1934


New Orleanian Henry Austan 

Recalls Bogalusa's Deacons for Defense & Justice

By Jonathan Tilove

Deacons for Defense

Worship of white supremacy, fundamentalism, and capitalism --  It isn't very likely that Americans will get smarter anytime soon. Politicians know that appealing to their worst instincts is usually a winning formula. The corporate run media is not only unhelpful in enlightening the public but is in fact complicit in keeping them in the dark. The New York Times is once again leading the charge in helping the Bush administration push bogus information. This time around Iran is the bogeyman maligned by unnamed sources. It is déjà vu all over again. Belief in American superiority and particularly the superiority of white people, will always win the day and will always keep the nation ignorant. It isn't surprising that politicians evoke the name of Davy Crockett and peddle nonsense about the sun rotating around the earth. After all, leaders can only be a reflection of the people they serve. --Margaret Kimberley, “Freedom Rider: America the Stupid.”


Carter G. Woodson, Father of Black History By Lerone Bennett, Jr.

The Negro Washerwoman  Fifty Influential Figures

Sandra West files: We Are A Dancing People  Leslie Garland Bolling   Wendy Stand Up with Your Proud Hair!   Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance

   The Black Vanguard & 1970s Repression


Control, Conflict, and Change

The Underlying Concepts of the Black Manifesto

By James Forman, Chairman, United Black Appeal

Reparations as a Tactic of Black Liberation -- Or Loosening the Social Controls on Blacks


Why Facts & Dates Are Not So Important in History: A Discussion about the Nature of History: by Hugh Capel

Rosa Parks

2/4/1913 -10/24/2005

 ~A civilized society distinguishes itself by how fairly it treats its constituents~ -mb

MAAT: Our New Social Policy  by Ata Omom / The Family of Cow Tom  / BBC Radio

Thomas Jefferson and His Negro Family   


Uncle Jeff and His Contempos

By Wilson J. Moses

The Eternal Linkage of Literature and Society  Dwight David Eisenhower

Creative Conflict in African-American Thought Frederick Douglass, Alexander Crummell, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey

Wilson Jeremiah Moses:  Teflon Sense of History & Collective Sin  A Letter from Wilson Moses   Afrotopia   Teflon Sense of History 

Insurgents -- Martin Luther King at AFL-CIO  / LeRoi Jones: Black Man as Victim  /   LeRoi Jones: Pursued by the Furies   / Introduction to Denmark Vesey

Confession of John Enslow  / Confession of Bacchus Hammet  / Commentators on Nathaniel Turner of Southampton  /  1831 Confessions  /   NT TimeLine 

Black Education

A Transformative Research and Action Agenda

for the New Century

Edited by Joyce E. King

  Afterword   Ten Vital Principles for Black Education 

White Privilege Shapes the U.S.  /  Myths of Low-Wage Workers   /  Ujamaa   /  New Deal / Raw Deal  /  Stalling the Dream by Meizhu Lui         

Grace Boggs on Reorganizing Urban Schools


The Dropout Challenge    Give Detroit Schools a Fresh Start   

Read Also:  Going Beyond Black and White


Rudolph Lewis: Quality Education for Black & Brown Undermined by Class Oppression & Public Intellectuals

50 Years of Progress Since Brown  

 First Holocaust in the Western World

Death of a Nation

By Hans Koning

The Political Thought of James Forman

Black Insurgents -- Martin Luther King at AFL-CIO  / LeRoi Jones: Black Man as Victim  /   LeRoi Jones: Pursued by the Furies   /  Introduction to Denmark Vesey

 The Confession of John Enslow  The Confession of Bacchus Hammet  / Commentators on Nathaniel Turner  /  1831 Confessions  /   NT TimeLine 

Ama A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade 

By Manu Herbstein 

 Should whites wear shackles and chains to reverse history? By Alicia M. Waller



The Autobiography of William Sanders Scarborough

An American Journey from Slavery to Scholarship

Edited with an Introduction by Michelle Valerie Ronnick

Foreword by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.   Books N Review

DuBois Speaks to Africa  Delivered to the All-African Congress in 1958

Du Bois' Letter to Yolande 1958   Steve Biko Speaks on Black Consciousness


William Syphax: A Pioneer 

in Negro Education in the District of Columbia (Excerpts)

By E. Delorus Preston, Jr.

An Archival Search for Sterling Brown          Maria Syphax Case Table          (Part 1 and Part 2 and Part 3)

Two Scholars Discuss Afrocentrism  as A Racial Ideology: History & Ethics

Wilson Jeremiah Moses & Cane Hope Felder

The picture [left] would have appeared shocking to a viewer in the Civil War era, when it was taken, because it shows a little black boy with a little white girl on his arm.  This is a posture suggestive of "traditional courtship roles," and it violates taboos concerning what we would today call, "interracial dating."  But look closely at the caption!   They are both "emancipated slave children!" They are both legally black.  So it is okay for her to take his arm.   Whoever distributed this photo was certainly aware that he/she was making several points, not the least of which was that "white" girls could be designated "black" slaves under American law.  --Wilson J. Moses
Rise of Black Leadership -- a quote from Abbe Raynal, A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, Vol. 6 (1798), pp. 128-129

Up from Slavery

A Documentary History of Negro Education (Table)

Compiled by Rudolph Lewis

In 1883, U.S Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unlawful.

NAACP & the Ada Sipuel Case

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Fraternal Lodges Developing & Expanding the Village in Rural Southern Virginia by Stuart W. Doyle







The Family of Cow Tom

the Connection of Africans

&  the Civilized Tribes

Cow Tom Table

 Cow Tom   

 Geraldine Robinson 

Oklahoma Narrative of Cow Tom

Cow Tom & Amy 

Harry Island   

Silas Jefferson   

Cow Tom Family Tree    

Cow Tom Family Tree 2   

Narrative of Ned Thompson   

Scott Rentie  

African Towns   

Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey (2008)

Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey (2008)Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa

Egalitarian Slaveowners A  Sexual Defense of Andy Jackson

Conversations with  Ben, Wilson, Louis, John, Joyce, Anita, Miriam



Dr. Edward J. Perkins was named to the William J. Crowe Chair and as Executive Director of the International Programs Center by The University of Oklahoma Regents in March of 1996. He took up his duties in both appointments in August 1996. Ambassador Perkins served as the Clinton Administration’s representative to the Commonwealth of Australia from November 24, 1993 until August 1996. On August 31, 1996, Ambassador Perkins retired with the rank of Career Minister in the United States Foreign Service. Early appointments: Chief of Personnel at the Army and Air Force Exchange in Taipei, Taiwan, 1958; Deputy Chief, then Chief of Personnel and Administration, at the Army and Air Force Exchange on Okinawa, 1962-66; Assistant General Services Officer to the U. S. Operations Mission to Thailand, 1967. There, he served successively as a Management Analyst, then Deputy Assistant Director for Management.

 Edward J. Perkins and Connie Cronley. Mr. Ambassador: Warrior for Peace. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006

The 10 Biggest Myths About Black History By Lerone Bennett Jr.

Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History  by Wilson Jeremiah Moses

Baltimore Baltimore Page

     Baltimore's Old Slave Markets  The city Boasted a Dozen Well-Established Dealers By Stanton Tierman 

     Black Baltimore History      

     Baltimore Historical Black Churches

Black Military Veterans

     50th Anniversary of Korean War (1950-1953)   

     Buffalo Soldiers Day in Maryland

     The Letters of David Parks

     Life of Black Army Chaplains Plummer, Allensworth, Steward, et al

     "A Son Goes to War"


Booker T. Washington


    Atlanta Exposition Address

     Booker T. Receives Harvard Degree

     John S. Bassett Describes Booker T.    


Carter G. Woodson

     A Carter G. Woodson Bibliography   

     Demise of Black History Month

     It’s That Time Again  by Van G. Garrett

     The Negro Washerwoman, a Vanishing Figure  by Carter G. Woodson


Demark Vesey

     Terror in South Carolina 1822 by Robert S. Starobin

     Confession of Bacchus

     Confession of John Enslow    

Edith Sampson: A Cold War Warrior Defends American Democracy to the World Before 1964



Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World

By Maya Jasanoff

On November 25, 1783, the last British troops pulled out of New York City, bringing the American Revolution to an end. Patriots celebrated their departure and the confirmation of U.S. independence. But for tens of thousands of American loyalists, the British evacuation spelled worry, not jubilation. What would happen to them in the new United States? Would they and their families be safe? Facing grave doubts about their futures, some sixty thousand loyalists—one in forty members of the American population—decided to leave their homes and become refugees elsewhere in the British Empire. They sailed for Britain, for Canada, for Jamaica, and for the Bahamas; some ventured as far as Sierra Leone and India. Wherever they went, the voyage out of America was a fresh beginning, and it carried them into a dynamic if uncertain new world. A groundbreaking history of the revolutionary era, Liberty’s Exiles tells the story of this remarkable global diaspora. Through painstaking archival research and vivid storytelling, award-winning historian Maya Jasanoff re-creates the journeys of ordinary individuals whose lives were overturned by extraordinary events. . . . Mohawk leader Joseph Brant resettled his people under British protection in Ontario, while the adventurer William Augustus Bowles tried to shape a loyalist Creek state in Florida.


Milton Allimadi

     The Hearts of Darkness

     Inventing Africa: New York Times

     Times Concocted 'Darkest Africa'   

The Negro’s Progress in American Education  -- Cornish and Russwurm

Scot French

     A Conversation with Scot French

     The Rebellious Slave


W.E.B. Du Bois

     Dawn of Freedom 

     Du Bois Chronology 

     DuBois' Credo

     Jacob and Esau  

     Leading the Negro into Modernity

     Negro Church  

     Toussaint L'Ouverture and Nat Turner  

Wilson J. Moses

     Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History 

     Creative Conflict in African-American Thought

    Teflon Sense of History & Collective Sin  A Letter from Wilson Moses



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