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Christianity provided, unconsciously, an intellectual soil in which the Greek spirit of unimpeded rational inquiry

could blossom into the modern scientific outlook, [transforming] the intellectual content of Christianity into

a faith which does not contradict the findings of the sciences



Che Guevara


Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War  /  Che Guevara: Radical Writings on Guerrilla Warfare, Politics and Revolution


The African Dream: The diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo  / Self- Portrait Che Guevara


Paulo Freire

Pedagogy of the Oppressed  /  Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage 


Education for Critical Consciousness   / Teachers as Cultural Workers


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God Has Many Names

By John Hick

A major revolution in thinking about religion is called for in this challenging work by theologian and religious philosopher John Hick. The author persuasively argues for a true religious pluralism, respectful of the non-Christian traditions that have persisted over time—Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Islam.

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Belief and Interfaith Dialogue

By John Hick


Whether Marxism is to be accounted a religion is a matter of definition. Personally I prefer a definition of “religion” which involves an essential reference to the Transcendent and which consequently does not include Marxism. Nevertheless, Marxism borders on the religions in that it is a systematic interpretation of human existence which issues in a distinctive way of life; and as such it constitutes one of the most powerful options among the world’s living religions and ideologies.

And when a Marxist engages in dialogue with people of other faiths than his own he does so from within his own conviction that Marxism teaches the truth about man and his history, including the truth that man’s religions are projections of human hope, whose historic function has been to enable the exploited masses to bear their servitude patiently rather than rise up against their oppressors. And it must be his hope that through his proclamation of Marxist truth his hearers will be converted and enlisted among the forces of progress. . . .

The origins of the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries lie in the many-sided awakening of the European mind from its dogmatic slumbers in the period which is comprehensively called the Renaissance. This was a renaissance of the ancient Greco-Roman civilization, whose literature was spread throughout Europe by the new technique of printing. Science was thus a product of an interaction of cultures.

For the rationalistic and enquiring spirit of Greek philosophy seems to have been the main new fertilizing agent which stimulated the rise of modern science in Christian Europe, bringing its medieval phase to an end. And since its own increasing momentum, rapidly establishing its independence from the Christian world view, and indeed continually challenging the Christian faith and forcing it to undergo major transformation in order to remain credible in the light of growing empirical knowledge.

Thus we may say that Christianity provided, unconsciously, an intellectual soil in which the Greek spirit of unimpeded rational inquiry could blossom into the modern scientific outlook, and that this has now in turn largely transformed the intellectual content of Christianity into a faith which does not contradict the findings of the sciences. . . .

One of the major questions put to the Marxists and Maoists in their dialogue with the religions will concern individual human freedom. The religions will have increasingly to recognize a considerable element of truth in the Marxist analysis of the economic dynamics of human society., and a common aim with Marxism in the ideal of a classless society in which men no longer exploit one another.

Indeed the moral basis for the criticism both of the Hindu caste system and of polygamy and the traditional subordination of women is most clearly articulated in Marxism. For Marxism embodies in its pure form the mentality produced by the scientific revolution. Marxism is modernity without religion, in contrast to much of contemporary Christianity, which is modernity in a religious form.

But the Marxist societies have to face the question whether, in their opposition to capitalist-Christian civilization, they have not themselves become hierarchical and authoritarian, thus negating the concept of human liberation on which they are based. For there are clearly as many features of Marxist as of Christian, Muslim, and Hindu societies which contradict the modern ideal of human equality and freedom. . . .

Source: Excerpt from John Hick. God Has Many Names. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.

John Hick is one of the world's foremost theologians and philosophers of religion: his books feature on many comparative religion and philosophy courses and his theories and work in the field of race relations have earned him international acclaim. In this warm-hearted account, he tells his life story, from his schoolboy days in Yorkshire, through his conversion to evangelical fundamentalism, to his renunciation of this to become a staunch advocate of religious pluralism.

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My Face Is Black  / Pan-Africanism and the Black Church  / The Meaning Of Malcolm X

Is God a White Racist   Death of the Black Church  

Gayraud Stephen Wilmore—writer, historian, educator and theologian—was born on December 20, 1921 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother was a domestic worker and his father, a World War I veteran, was an office clerk. His parents were active in the community where he grew up, and his father founded the first Black American Legion Post in Pennsylvania. . . . Wilmore has written and edited sixteen books including Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of African Americans, which was published in 1998, and Pragmatic Spirituality, which was published in June 2004. He is also the recipient of innumerable awards and honors. . . . From 1959 to 1963, Wilmore was an assistant professor of social ethics at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. From there, he served as the executive director of the United Presbyterian Commission on Religion and Race until 1972. In that position, he helped to organize and train ministers who participated in boycotts and protests in the South during the Civil Rights movement. From 1972-1974, he taught Social Ethics at Boston University School of Theology, and then taught Black church studies at Colgate Rochester Divinity School until 1983. Wilmore served as the dean of the divinity program at New York Theological Seminary until 1987 before becoming a teacher of church history at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta. In 1990, he became the editor of The Journal of the ITC, and he remained in that post for five years. From 1995 to 1998, Wilmore was an adjunct professor at the United Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio. Wilmore has written and edited sixteen books including Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of African Americans, which was published in 1998, and Pragmatic Spirituality.—Historymakers

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C. Eric Lincoln, Race Scholar Is Dead at 75—Eric V. Copage—C. Eric Lincoln, author of several of the most important scholarly works on the religious experience of black Americans, died on Sunday at his home in Durham, N.C. He was 75. He had been suffering from high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart trouble, his family said. Dr. Lincoln wrote The Black Muslims in America, the first scholarly examination of the movement, and was a co-author of The Black Church in the African-American Experience, a landmark study of the political and social influence of religious institutions in black America.

Dr. Lincoln, professor emeritus of religion and culture at Duke University in Durham, N.C., where he taught from 1976 to 1993, wrote or edited more than 20 other books, including The Avenue, Clayton City, a novel published in 1988, for which he won the Lillian Smith Book Award for Best Southern Fiction, and a series of books in the 1970's called the C. Eric Lincoln Series in Black Religion. An ordained United Methodist minister, his friendships and expertise were truly ecumenical. He was a friend of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and Alex Haley, and in 1990 was cited by Pope John Paul II for ''scholarly service to the church.''NYTimes  / My Face Is Black

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Super Rich: A Guide to Having it All

By Russell Simmons

Russell Simmons knows firsthand that wealth is rooted in much more than the stock  market. True wealth has more to do with what's in your heart than what's in your wallet. Using this knowledge, Simmons became one of America's shrewdest entrepreneurs, achieving a level of success that most investors only dream about. No matter how much material gain he accumulated, he never stopped lending a hand to those less fortunate. In Super Rich, Simmons uses his rare blend of spiritual savvy and street-smart wisdom to offer a new definition of wealth-and share timeless principles for developing an unshakable sense of self that can weather any financial storm. As Simmons says, "Happy can make you money, but money can't make you happy."

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The New Jim Crow

Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

By Michele Alexander

Contrary to the rosy picture of race embodied in Barack Obama's political success and Oprah Winfrey's financial success, legal scholar Alexander argues vigorously and persuasively that [w]e have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it. Jim Crow and legal racial segregation has been replaced by mass incarceration as a system of social control (More African Americans are under correctional control today... than were enslaved in 1850). Alexander reviews American racial history from the colonies to the Clinton administration, delineating its transformation into the war on drugs. She offers an acute analysis of the effect of this mass incarceration upon former inmates who will be discriminated against, legally, for the rest of their lives, denied employment, housing, education, and public benefits. Most provocatively, she reveals how both the move toward colorblindness and affirmative action may blur our vision of injustice: most Americans know and don't know the truth about mass incarceration—but her carefully researched, deeply engaging, and thoroughly readable book should change that.—Publishers Weekly

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 13 December 2011




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