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Whereas at least 4,742 people, predominantly African-Americans, were reported lynched

in the U.S.  between 1882 and 1968; Whereas 99 percent of all perpetrators

of lynching escaped from punishment by State or local officials; Whereas

lynching prompted African-Americans to form the NAACP

 

 

The Lynching Resolution

109TH CONGRESS

1ST SESSION S. RES. 39

Apologizing to the victims of lynching and the descendants of those victims for the failure of the Senate to enact anti-lynching legislation.

20 Senators refused to sign anti-lynching resolution

 

In the Senate of the United States February 7, 2005

Ms. Landrieu (for herself, Mr. Allen, Mr. Levin, Mr. Frist, Mr. Reid, Mr. Allard, Mr. Akaka, Mr. Brownback, Mr. Bayh, Ms. Collins, Mr. Biden, Mr. Ensign, Mrs. Boxer, Mr. Hagel, Mr. Corzine, Mr. Lugar, Mr. Dayton, Mr. McCain, Mr. Dodd, Ms. Snowe, Mr. Durbin, Mr. Specter, Mr. Feingold, Mr. Stevens, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr.Talent, Mr. Harkin, Mr. Jeffords, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Kohl, Mr. Lautenberg, Mr. Leahy, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. Nelson of Florida, Mr. Pryor, and Mr. Schumer) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary

 

Resolution

Apologizing to the victims of lynching and the descendants of those victims for the failure of the Senate to enact anti-lynching legislation.

Whereas the crime of lynching succeeded slavery as the ultimate expression of racism in the United States following Reconstruction; Whereas lynching was a widely acknowledged practice in the United States until the middle of the 20th century;

Whereas lynching was a crime that occurred throughout the United States, with documented incidents in all but 4 States;

Whereas at least 4,742 people, predominantly African-Americans, were reported lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968;

Whereas 99 percent of all perpetrators of lynching escaped from punishment by State or local officials;

Whereas lynching prompted African-Americans to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and prompted members of B’nai B’rith to found the Anti-Defamation League;

Whereas nearly 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in Congress during the first half of the 20th century;

Whereas, between 1890 and 1952, 7 Presidents petitioned Congress to end lynching;

Whereas, between 1920 and 1940, the House of Representatives passed 3 strong anti-lynching measures;

Whereas protection against lynching was the minimum and most basic of Federal responsibilities, and the Senate considered but failed to enact anti-lynching legislation despite repeated requests by civil rights groups, Presidents, and the House of Representatives to do so;

Whereas the recent publication of ‘‘Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America’’ helped bring greater awareness and proper recognition of the victims of lynching;

Whereas only by coming to terms with history can the United States effectively champion human rights abroad; and

Whereas an apology offered in the spirit of true repentance moves the United States toward reconciliation and may become central to a new understanding, on which improved racial relations can be forged:

Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That the Senate—

(1) apologizes to the victims of lynching for the failure of the Senate to enact anti-lynching legislation;

(2) expresses the deepest sympathies and most solemn regrets of the Senate to the descendants of victims of lynching, the ancestors of whom were deprived of life, human dignity, and the constitutional protections accorded all citizens of the United States; and

(3) remembers the history of lynching, to ensure that these tragedies will be neither forgotten nor repeated.

Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882-1968 *


State

White

Black

Total


Alabama

48

299

347

Arizona

31

0

31

Arkansas

58

226

284

California

41

2

43

Colorado

65

3

68

Delaware

0

1

1

Florida

25

257

282

Georgia

39

492

531

Idaho

20

0

20

Illinois

15

19

34

Indiana

33

14

47

Iowa

17

2

19

Kansas

35

19

54

Kentucky

63

142

205

Louisiana

56

335

391

Maine

1

0

1

Maryland

2

27

29

Michigan

7

1

8

Minnesota

5

4

9

Mississippi

42

539

581

Missouri

53

69

122

Montana

82

2

84

Nebraska

52

5

57

Nevada

6

0

6

New Jersey

1

1

2

New Mexico

33

3

36

New York

1

1

2

North Carolina

15

86

101

North Dakota

13

3

16

Ohio

10

16

26

Oklahoma

82

40

122

Oregon

20

1

21

Pennsylvania

2

6

8

South Carolina

4

156

160

South Dakota

27

0

27

Tennessee

47

204

251

Texas

141

352

493

Utah

6

2

8

Vermont

1

0

1

Virginia

17

83

100

Washington

25

1

26

West Virginia

20

28

48

Wisconsin

6

0

6

Wyoming

30

5

35

 

 

 

 

Total

1,297

3,446

4,743

*Statistics provided  by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.

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20 Senators refused to sign

anti lynching resolution


Here are the 20 Senators who:

 1) refused to co-sponsor the anti-lynching resolution passed and  
 2) refused a roll-call vote so they would not have to put  their names on the resolution as having voted against it.  
 
Call or email them and tell them what you think: http://www.senate.gov/  or at
http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm

Lamar Alexander (R-TN)
Robert Bennett (R-UT)
Christopher Bond (R-MO)
Jim Bunning (R-KY)
Conrad Burns (R-MT)
Saxby Chambliss (R-GA)
Thad Cochran (R-MS)
Kent Conrad (D-ND)
John Cornyn (R-TX)
Michael Crapo (R-ID)
Michael Enzi (R-WY)
Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
Judd Gregg (R-NH)
Orrin Hatch (R-UT)
Trent Lott (R-MS)
Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)
Richard Shelby (R-AL)
John Sununu (R-NH)
Craig Thomas (R-WY)
George Voinovich (R-OH)  

 

19 Republicans and 1 Democrat, a real wall of shame for progress in America.  These Senators represent a hate in America, contact them and let them know you will not tolerate their support of hate in America. 

See the corrected Senator account at thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SE00039:@@@P

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American Justice 1919

This is the Real Dope: Where Did We Go from Here?

Willie Brown, accused of sexually assaulting a white woman, was lynched on 28 September 1919, outside of the Douglas County Courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska. Brown was hanged and shot repeatedly. Brown’s body was dragged behind an automobile through downtown Omaha and, eventually, burned at the intersection of 17th and Dodge Streets.

Rights are so much more effectively destroyed by bullying a citizenry out of wanting to exercise them than any other means.Uruknet

posted 24 June 2005

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AALBC.com's 25 Best Selling Books


 

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#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

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#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
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#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

*   *   *   *   *

The New Jim Crow

Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

By Michele Alexander

Contrary to the rosy picture of race embodied in Barack Obama's political success and Oprah Winfrey's financial success, legal scholar Alexander argues vigorously and persuasively that [w]e have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it. Jim Crow and legal racial segregation has been replaced by mass incarceration as a system of social control (More African Americans are under correctional control today... than were enslaved in 1850). Alexander reviews American racial history from the colonies to the Clinton administration, delineating its transformation into the war on drugs. She offers an acute analysis of the effect of this mass incarceration upon former inmates who will be discriminated against, legally, for the rest of their lives, denied employment, housing, education, and public benefits.—Publishers Weekly

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Panther Baby

A Life of Rebellion and Reinvention

By Jamal Joseph

In the 1960s he exhorted students at Columbia University to burn their college to the ground. Today he’s chair of their School of the Arts film division. Jamal Joseph’s personal odyssey—from the streets of Harlem to Riker’s Island and Leavenworth to the halls of Columbia—is as gripping as it is inspiring. Eddie Joseph was a high school honor student, slated to graduate early and begin college. But this was the late 1960s in Bronx’s black ghetto, and fifteen-year-old Eddie was introduced to the tenets of the Black Panther Party, which was just gaining a national foothold. By sixteen, his devotion to the cause landed him in prison on the infamous Rikers Island—charged with conspiracy as one of the Panther 21 in one of the most emblematic criminal cases of the sixties. When exonerated, Eddie—now called Jamal—became the youngest spokesperson and leader of the Panthers’ New York chapter.

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A Black Communist in the Freedom Struggle

The Life of Harry Haywood

Edited by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall

Mustering out of the U.S. army in 1919, Harry Haywood stepped into a battle that was to last the rest of his life. Within months, he found himself in the middle of one of the bloodiest race riots in U.S. history and realized that he’d been fighting the wrong war—the real enemy was right here at home. This book is Haywood’s eloquent account of coming of age as a black man in twentieth-century America and of his political awakening in the Communist Party. For all its cultural and historical interest, Harry Haywood’s story is also noteworthy for its considerable narrative drama. The son of parents born into slavery, Haywood tells how he grew up in Omaha, Nebraska, found his first job as a shoeshine boy in Minneapolis, then went on to work as a waiter on trains and in restaurants in Chicago.

After fighting in France during the war, he studied how to make revolutions in Moscow during the 1920s, led the Communist Party’s move into the Deep South in 1931, helped to organize the campaign to free the Scottsboro Boys, worked with the Sharecroppers’ Union, supported protests in Chicago against Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia, fought with the International Brigades in Spain, served in the Merchant Marines during World War II, and continued to fight for the right of self-determination for the Afro-American nation in the United States until his death in 1985.

*   *   *   *   *

The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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