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Sudan has, until recently, had a tank force consisting mostly of about 200 Chinese Type 59s,

but some of these appear to have been upgraded by the Chinese. Also spotted in Sudan

have been Chinese Type 92 wheeled infantry fighting vehicle (similar to the U.S Stryker ).



Modern Chinese Tanks for the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF)

Kenya Seizes Weapons for the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA)

Chinese President Hu Jintao urged Sudan's Omar al-Bashir


The Chinese government has supplied more modern and advanced weapon systems to the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), while Kenya has seized weapons bound to the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) routed through the port of Mombassa saying that it constitutes a clear violation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) according to a recent press report.

According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) there are three recognized army groups; the Joint Integrated Unit, the Sudan Armed Forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army. The CPA recognizes each of these armies as legitimate independent entities.

United Press International (UPI) reported on February 15, 2008 in Terra Daily website in its analysis that the Chinese Type 96 ( also called Type 88C ) tanks were spotted in Sudan last year, indicating that China has exported one of its most modern tanks to Africa.

According to the International News Agency and Strategy website of February 20, the 50 ton Type 96 has a three man crew and modern sensors and electronics. The 90 series tanks are of Chinese design, and there appears to be as many as 2500 Type 90 series tanks in service, with as many as two thirds of them Type 96s. There are another 700 Type 79s and 80s, both of which were stepping stones to the 90 series. Most Chinese tanks, about 5,000, are Type 59s. Most of these have been upgraded from being a clone of the Russian T-54 to T-54 clones equipped with western  guns ( copy of the British L7 105mm gun, firing depleted uranium shells) and modern electronics. China has also a copy of the German 120mm gun, which it may try to install in some Type 59 upgrades.

Those Type 59s that don’t get upgraded are being scrapped. This apparently means that the Type 59 force will shrink by at least several hundred tanks a year until all are gone.

Sudan has, until recently, had a tank force consisting mostly of about 200 Chinese Type 59s, but some of these appear to have been upgraded by the Chinese. Also spotted in Sudan have been Chinese Type 92 wheeled infantry fighting vehicle (similar to the U.S Stryker ).

China is very strict about keeping information on its tank force secret. The most modern tanks they have are the Type 98 and 99, which come close to matching early models of the U.S. M-1.

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Meanwhile, the Kenyan government on February 14, seized at the port of Mombassa 50 tanks for the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) saying it is a member of the CPA Assessment and Evaluation Commission and one of the sponsors of Sudan’s peace deal.

According to the Khartoum based Al-Ray Al-Aam, Nairobi has said that SPLA military capabilities build-up is contrary to the signed peace agreement.

The 2005 peace deal between the former rebel movement and the Khartoum government ended one of Africa’s longest civil wars, bringing many fighters out of the bush.

In accordance with the CPA, the Sudan Armed Forces and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army constitute the Sudan’s National Armed Forces during the interim period that are administered differently. Each is independent to develop its forces capacity.

The seized containers are the first batch of weapons contracted by the SPLA from former Soviet Union states, rocket launchers, artillery and aircraft had not yet arrived, the Kenyan sources disclosed.

The independent daily pointed out that there were a number of containers of spare parts for military vehicles and weapons in Mombassa port.

The United States has started military training for SPLA troops in order to transform the former rebel army into a professional army.

Washington denied that contracts with a specialized firm, DynCorp, included any arms deal with southern Sudan’s government, which donors say has funnelled the biggest chunk of its budget – some 40 percent – into defence.

Source: Staff Writers, Juba Post, Juba, South Sudan, 22-29th February  2008 / Strategy Page

posted 25 March 2008

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China to Loan South Sudan $8 Billion—30 April 2012—China has agreed to loan oil-rich South Sudan eight billion dollars for infrastructure development, according to Juba government spokesman, Barnaba Mariel Benjamin. “It will fund roads, bridges, hydropower, agriculture and telecommunications projects… within the next two years,” he said, giving details of a visit this week to China by South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir. “Details (of the projects) will be defined by the ministers of the two countries and by the Chinese firms in charge of the work,” said the spokesman for the world’s youngest nation. Energy-hungry China is the largest purchaser of oil from South Sudan, which proclaimed independence last July, and is also a longstanding business partner of Sudan from which it also buys oil.—AfricanGlobe

China: A Strategic Partner of the New Nation of South Sudan—Luka Biong Deng—16 April 2012—The Republic of South Sudan, the newest member state of the UN, has entered into a world that is stratified into the top billion people who are prosperous, middle four billion of people who are developing and on track to be prosperous and bottom billion of people who are struck at the bottom with appalling living conditions.

Also the people living in the countries of the bottom billion have been in one or another of the four traps: conflict trap, natural resource trap, land-locked and bad neighbours trap and bad governance in a small country trap. It would certainly not require much efforts of where to position the newest member of the United Nation in the current economic and political stratification of the world. South Sudan falls not only in the bottom billion but it is at the bottom of the bottom billion and is virtually exposed to all the four traps experienced by the bottom billion. . . . There are five basic goals that the Government of South Sudan could seek to accomplish during President Salva Kiir’s visit to China. First, the visit could be used to reposition South Sudan as strategic partner to China not only in terms of South Sudan’s economic potentials, but also in terms of its position in the region. Second, the visit could assure China of South Sudan’s commitment to maintaining good relations with Sudan, including exporting its crude oil through the pipelines in Sudan if Khartoum is willing to settle for internationally accepted fees.

Third, the visit could serve to articulate the strategic importance that South Sudan ascribes to the diversification of its pipelines and the need for China to assist not only in the feasibility studies and impact assessments associated with the alternative pipeline but also in its funding.

Fourth, the visit could make it clear to China that if not resolved, the unfinished business of the CPA in terms of popular consultation for the people of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, the referendum for the people of Abyei area, and demarcation of the North-South border will continue to haunt the relationship between the two states. China is uniquely positioned to exert diplomatic pressure on Khartoum to resolve these pending issues.

Fifth, the visit could ensure access to concessional loans for development of infrastructure (telecommunication, roads, power generation and sports) and for agricultural ‘green revolution’. China is a huge country and shifting its policy to include a focus on an independent South Sudan is a mammoth task. But with hard work and patience, our mutual interests align enough to remain hopeful for a strong relationship in the years to come.—SudanTribune

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Blacks in Hispanic Literature: Critical Essays

Edited by Miriam DeCosta-Willis 

Blacks in Hispanic Literature is a collection of fourteen essays by scholars and creative writers from Africa and the Americas. Called one of two significant critical works on Afro-Hispanic literature to appear in the late 1970s, it includes the pioneering studies of Carter G. Woodson and Valaurez B. Spratlin, published in the 1930s, as well as the essays of scholars whose interpretations were shaped by the Black aesthetic. The early essays, primarily of the Black-as-subject in Spanish medieval and Golden Age literature, provide an historical context for understanding 20th-century creative works by African-descended, Hispanophone writers, such as Cuban Nicolás Guillén and Ecuadorean poet, novelist, and scholar Adalberto Ortiz, whose essay analyzes the significance of Negritude in Latin America. This collaborative text set the tone for later conferences in which writers and scholars worked together to promote, disseminate, and critique the literature of Spanish-speaking people of African descent. . . .

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 5 May 2012




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