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 In 1904, Monroe Nathan Work (1866-1945) came to Tuskegee to teach and to establish the Department of Records and Research, which was to accumulate and analyze statistics and records of black Americans. Publisher and compiler of the

Negro yearbook, he was born in Iredell County, North Carolina.



A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America (1928)

Compiled By Monroe Work 

Director of Records and Research 

Tuskegee Normal and Industrial institute

(Sociologist 1866-1945)

Table of Contents

Part One

The Negro in Africa


I. Discovery and Exploration in Africa from Ancient Times to 1800

     1. Maps of Africa before 1800



     2. Books on Discovery and Exploration 4
II. Discovery and Exploration in Africa since 1800

     1. Maps of Africa 1800 to 1827



     2. Books on Discovery and Exploration in Africa since 1800 18
III. African Civilizations 28
IV. African Peoples

     1. Ethnographic Maps



     2. Description of African Peoples        39
V. African Laws and Customs 51
VI. African Religious Beliefs and Practices 66
VII. African Languages

     1. Language Maps



     2. Books and Articles on African Languages 74
VIII. African Art 93
IX. African Music 98
X. African Folklore 101
XI. Slavery and the Slave Trade Within Africa 111
XII. Independent Governments in Africa

     1. Abyssinia



     2. Liberia 121
XIII. European Governments and African Colonization

     1. Political Maps of Africa



     2. Belgium and African Colonization 127
     3. France and African Colonization 130
     4. Germany and African Colonization 136
     5. Great Britain and African Colonization 139
     6. Italy and African Colonization 148
     7. Portugal and African Colonization 149
     8. The League of Nations' Mandates in Africa 150
     9. Governments and the Employment of Native Troops 162
    10. Governments and the Liquor Traffic 164
XIV. Race and Other Problems of Relationships in the African Situation

     1. Problems of Black, Coloured, Asiatic and White



               (a) Problems with Respect to the Native and Coloured Population 166
               (b) Problems with Respect to the Asiatics 178
     2. The Modern Slavery Problem in Africa 180
     3. The Labour Question in Africa 184
XV. Christian Missions in Africa

     1. Maps of the Mission Fields in Africa



     2. Missionary Societies, their History and work in Africa 192
     3. Personal Narratives and Descriptions by Missionary Workers in Africa 203
     4. Biographies of Missionaries to Africa 207
               (a) Single Biographies 207
               (b) Collective Biographies 212
     5. Problems of Mission Work in Africa 214
               (a) The Problem in Its More General Aspects 214
               (b) Missions and Governments 216
               (c) The Evangelization of the Natives 217
               (d) Christianity and Islam in Africa 220
               (e) Missions and Health Improvements 225
XVI. Health Problems in Africa
     1. Health Problems of Africa in their General and Particular Aspects 227
     2. Sleeping Sickness 230
XVII. The Education of the Native 232
XVIII. The Native African in Literature (Fiction) 238
XIX. A Bibliography of Bibliographies on Africa 242


Part Two

The Negro in America

Section One

The Negro in the Settlement of America


I.    The Negro and the Discovery of America 251
II.   The Introduction of Negro Slavery in America 254
III.  The African Slave Trade to America 256
IV.  Slavery in the West Indies

     1. Nature and Extent of Slavery in South America



     2. Emancipation in South America 278


Section Two

The Negro in the United States


I. Slavery in the Colonies

     1. Spread and Development of Slavery in the Colonies



     2. Slavery and Servitude 282
II.  Slavery in the States

     1. Slavery in the Southern States



     2. Slavery in the Northern States 284
III. Slavery in its Economic Aspects

     1. A General View of the Economic Aspects of Slavery



     2. The Domestic Slave Trade 289
IV.  Slavery in its Social Aspects 291
V.   The Religious Instruction of the Slaves 293
VI. Slavery and Abolition

     1. The Abolition Movement



     2. Biographies, Individuals Connected with Anti-Slavery Movement 306
     3. Poems on Slavery 308
     4. Slave Narratives 310
     5. Pro-Slavery Discussion 314
     6. Slavery and the Bible 317
     7. Slavery and the Church 320
VIII Slavery and Politics

     1. The Controversy over Slavery



             (a) General Political Aspects of the Controversy over Slavery 325
             (b) Slavery an the Admission of New States 329
     2. The Fugitive Slave law 333
IX.   Slavery in Canada 341
X. The Status and Control of the Slaves

     1. History of the Changes in the Status and Control of the Slaves



     2. Noted Law Suits Relating to the Status of the Slaves 344
XI.  Slave Insurrections 348
XII. The Free Negro 352
XIII. Colonization

     1. Colonization of the Free Negro 1770 to 1860



     2. Colonization of the Negro Since 1860 363
XIV. Civil War and the Emancipation of the Negro 365
XV.  The Negro in the Reconstruction Period

     1. A General View of the Negro and Reconstruction



     2. The Ku Klux Klan 376
XVI.  The Modern Ku Klux Klan 380
XVII. Negro Suffrage

     1. The Negro and Suffrage Before the Civil War



     2. The Negro and Suffrage From 1865 to 1890 384
     3. The Negro and Suffrage From 1890 to 1910 389
     4. The Negro and Suffrage Since 1910 393
XVIII. The Negro as a Soldier

     1. The Negro as a Soldier in the Civil War



     2. The Negro as a Soldier in the Regular Army 401
     3. The Negro as a Soldier in the Spanish-American War 402
     4. The Negro as a Soldier in the World War 403
XIX.  The Negro Church and Religious Life
     1. The First Negro Churches 405
     2. Noted Negro Preachers 405
     3. Negro Denominations 406
     4. Religious Life and Training of the Negro 407
     5. White Denominations of the Negro 410
     6. The Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. Among Negroes 413
XX. Negro Secret Societies 414
XXI. The Education of the Negro
     1. The Education of the Negro Before the Civil War 416
     2. The Education of the Negro During the Civil War Period 418
     3. The Education of the Negro During the Reconstruction Period 418
     4. General Discussions of the education of the Negro 420

     5. Boards and Foundations Carrying on Educational Work Among Negroes (See also

         divisions 2 and 3 of this chapter and division of Chapter XIX)



     6. The Elementary Education of the Negro (See also division 5 of this chapter) 423
     7. The Secondary and Industrial Education of the Negro 424
     8. The Higher Education of the Negro 427
     9. Teachers and Teacher Training Work for Negroes 428
    10. Libraries for Negroes 429
XXII.  Folk-lore of the Negro in the United States 430
XXIII.  Folk Music of the Negro in the United States
     1. Collections of Negro Folk Songs 433
               (a)  Collections of secular Songs 433
               (b)  Collections of Religious Songs 434
     2. Discussions of Negro Folk Songs 437
XXIV. The Negro and Modern Music
     1. Classical Music 440

               (a) Negro Composers of Classical Music and examples of Spirituals Classically

                   Arranged by Both White and Negro Authors



              (b) Discussions of the Negro in Music 441
     2. Jazz Music 442
XXV.  The Negro and the Stage
     1. Negro Minstrelsy (Representations of the Negro by White Persons) 444
     2. The Negro on the Stage 445
              (a)  Discussions About the Negro on the Stage 445
              (b)  Negro Musical Comedies 446

              (c)  Dramas Having Negro Characters or Dealing with Negro life (Authors White and




XXVI.  The Negro and Modern Art (Painting and Sculpture) 452
XXVII.  The Negro and Literature

     1. Discussions of the Negro and Literature

            (a)  Negro Dialect 454
            (b)  General Discussions of the Negro and Literature 455
                     (1)  Discussions by Whites of the Negro and Literature 455
                     (2)  Discussions of Literature by Negroes 456
     2. Negro Poets and Their Poetry 457
     3.  Short Stories Relating to the Negro or Having Negro Characters 461
              (a)  Books of short Stories by White Authors Relating to the Negro 461
              (b)  Books of Short Stories by Negro Authors 463
     4. Novels Relating to the Negro 464
            (a)  Novels by White Authors Relating to the Negro 464
                  (1)  Novels by White Authors Treating Mainly of Slavery and Slavery Days 464
                  (2)  Novels by White Authors Treating of the Civil war and Reconstruction Period 468
                  (3)  Novels, mainly of the Present day, by White Authors 469
           (b)  Novels by Negro Authors Treating Mainly of the Present 471
     5. Some Additional Books by Negro Writers in the United States 472
             (a)  Histories Written by Negroes 472
             (b)  Biographies and Autobiographies of Negroes 473
             (c)  Miscellaneous Essays, Addresses, Orations, etc., by Negroes 476
XXVIII. The Negro Population in the United States

     1. Some General Statistics of the Negro Population



     2. Negro Population Movements 480
     3. The Negro in the City 486
     4. Negro Communities 488
XXIX.  Economic Conditions of Negroes
     1. The General Economic Conditions of Negroes 490
     2. The Negro in Business 491
     3. The Negro in Agriculture 493
     4. The Negro in Industry 497
               (a)  A General View of the Negro in Industry 497
               (b)  The Negro and Organized Labor 501
XXX. Negro Women
          1.  Occupations of Negro Women 504
          2.  The Status, Progress and Problems of Negro Women 505
XXXI. Health Problems of Negroes
          1. General Health Conditions of Negroes 508
          2.  Negroes and Housing and Sanitation 510
          3. The Negro and Diseases 513
               (a)  Diseases in General 513
               (b)  Tuberculosis 515
               (c)  Syphilis 517
               (d)  Insanity 518
               (e)  Diseases of the Eye 518
               (f)  Miscellaneous Diseases 519
          4. Mortality 521
          5.  Health Improvement of Negroes 524
          6.  The Negro in Medicine 526
          7. Hospitals and Nurses for Negroes 527
XXXII. Welfare Work Among Negroes

          1.  A General View of Welfare Work Among Negroes



          2. Recreational Activities and Agencies 531
XXXIII.  Negroes and Civil Rights in Law and Practice

          1. Discussions Relating to Negroes and Civil Rights



          2.  Applications of Provisions of 13th and 14th Amendments to Property and Other

               Rights of Individuals and Corporations in General



          3. Separation of the Races in Public Conveyances and in Public Places 538
          4. The Negro and Segregation in Residential Areas 539
          5.  The Negro and Peonage 541
XXXIV. The Negro and Crime
          1.  A General View of Crime as it Relates to the Negro 543
          2. Convict Systems and the Negro 546
          3.  Negro Juvenile Delinquency 547
XXXV. The Negro and Lynching
          1.  The History and Records of Lynching 550
          2.  Opinions and Views Concerning Lynching 553
          3. Protests in the South Against Lynching 556
          4.  Discussions of the Causes of Lynching and Suggested Ways for Its Suppression 557
          5.  Legislation Enacted or Proposed Against Lynching 558
XXXVI. The Negro and Riots 560
XXXVII. Race Characteristics

          1.  Race and Physical Characteristics



          2.  Race and Mental Characteristics 570
          3.  Some Extreme Views of Race 576
XXXVIII.  Race Mixture 578
XXXIX.  The Progress of the Negro
          1.  The General Progress of the Negro 583
          2.  Race Consciousness 585
XL.  The Race Problem in the United States

          1. Books on the Race Problem (American Authors)



          2. Discussions of the Race Problem in Periodicals 593
          3. Foreign Views on the Race problem 598
          4. Proposed Solutions of the Race Problem 601
XLI.  The Betterment of Race Relations
          1. Reference in Periodicals on the Betterment of Race Relations 604
          2. Reference to Books on the Betterment of Race Relations 607
               (a)  General References to Books on the Betterment of Race Relations 607
               (b)  References to Study Courses, etc. on the Betterment of Race Relations 609
XLII. Special Studies to the Negro

          1.  Anatomical and Anthropological Studies



          2.  Church and Religious Studies 614
          3.  Crime and Delinquency Studies 615
          4.  Economic Studies 615
          5.  Educational Studies 618
          6.  Folk Music Studies 620
          7.  History and Politics Studies 620
               (a)  Studies Relating to Slavery 620
               (b)  Studies Relating to the Reconstruction Period 623
               (c)  Studies Relating to Negro Suffrage 624
               (d)  Studies Relating to Africa 624
          8.  Psychological Studies 624
          9.  Race problem and Race Relations Studies 626
         10.  General Social Conditions Studies 628
XLIII.  A Bibliography of Bibliographies on the Negro in the United States 630


Section Three

Present Conditions of the Negro in the West Indies and Latin America


I.  Present Conditions of the Negro in the West Indies and Latin America 637
II. Present Conditions of the Negro in South America 643
III. Folklore of the Negro in the West Indies and South America 646
IV.  Folk Music of the Negro in the West Indies Latin America 648
V.  The Negro and literature in the West Indies and South America
      1.  Negro Poets in the West Indies and South America and their poetry 650
      2.  Short Stories, Novel and essays 652
VI.  A Bibliography of Bibliographies on the West Indies 655
VII. A Bibliography of Bibliographies on Latin America 659

List of periodicals from which References for the Bibliography Were taken



Index 675

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In 1904, Monroe Nathan Work (1866-1945) came to Tuskegee to teach and to establish the Department of Records and Research, which was to accumulate and analyze statistics and records of black Americans. Publisher and compiler of the Negro yearbook, he was born in Iredell County, North Carolina. He was educated at the Chicago Theological Seminary and the University of Chicago, from which he was awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts in philosophy and Masters of Arts in sociology and psychology in 1903.

He began his educational career as professor of pedagogy and history at the Georgia State Industrial College in 1903. Work accepted in 1908 the position of director of the department of records and research at Tuskegee Institute. This position led to the biennial publication of the Negro Yearbook, which supplied factual materials needed by schools and libraries. As part of his research, Work produced the periodic Lynching Reports that included information on all lynchings, regardless of the race of the victim. There were eleven editions of The Negro Yearbook.

Through his research in Europe and America, Monroe Work obtained important data for his compilation in 1928 of the A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America.  This publication was the first effort of its kind. In one publication he presented the works or publications about Negroes in all parts of the world from ancient ties to 1928.

In 1928, he received the Harmon Award in Education for "scholarly research and educational publicity through periodic publication of the Negro Yearbook and the compilation of a Bibliography of the Negro." In 1942, the University of Chicago Alumni Association presented him with the Alumni Citation in recognition of his forty years of public service.

The Tuskegee Institute News Clippings File Collection is a major legacy of the eminent black sociologist, Dr Monroe Nathan Work, who was Director of the Tuskegee Institute Department of Records and Research from 1908 until his retirement in 1938, but who continued in the Department until his death in 1945. 


Hines, Linda Elizabeth Ott. "A Black Sociologist in a Time of Trouble: Monroe Nathan Work, 1866-1945." Master's thesis, Auburn University, 1972.

Moses, Sibyl E. "The Influence of Philanthropic Agencies on the Development of Monroe Nathan Work's Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America," Libraries & Culture 31 (Spring 1996): 326-41.

McMurry, Linda O. Recorder of the Black Experience: A Biography of Monroe Nathan Work. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1985.

Monroe. N. Work. "Catholic Negro Work." The Negro Yearbook, an Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro, 1921-1922. The Negro Year Book Publishing Company: Tuskegee Institute, 1922.

Monroe. N. Work. "The Life of Charles B. Ray." Journal of Negro History IV (October 1919), pp. 361-371.

Monroe N. Work. Population: Population Each Census Year, 1790-1910 (white, Negro and all others). The Negro Yearbook, an Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro, 1921-1922. The Negro Year Book Publishing Company: Tuskegee Institute, 1922.

posted 9 November 2007

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*   *   *   *   *


Life on Mars

By Tracy K. Smith

Tracy K. Smith, author of Life on Mars has been selected as the winner of the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In its review of the book, Publishers Weekly noted the collection's "lyric brilliance" and "political impulses [that] never falter." A New York Times review stated, "Smith is quick to suggest that the important thing is not to discover whether or not we're alone in the universe; it's to accept—or at least endure—the universe's mystery. . . . Religion, science, art: we turn to them for answers, but the questions persist, especially in times of grief. Smith's pairing of the philosophically minded poems in the book’s first section with the long elegy for her father in the second is brilliant." Life on Mars follows Smith's 2007 collection, Duende, which won the James Laughlin Award from the Academy of American Poets, the only award for poetry in the United States given to support a poet's second book, and the first Essence Literary Award for poetry, which recognizes the literary achievements of African Americans. The Body’s Question (2003) was her first published collection.

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A Wreath for Emmett Till

By Marilyn Nelson; Illustrated by Philippe Lardy

This memorial to the lynched teen is in the Homeric tradition of poet-as-historian. It is a heroic crown of sonnets in Petrarchan rhyme scheme and, as such, is quite formal not only in form but in language. There are 15 poems in the cycle, the last line of one being the first line of the next, and each of the first lines makes up the entirety of the 15th. This chosen formality brings distance and reflection to readers, but also calls attention to the horrifically ugly events. The language is highly figurative in one sonnet, cruelly graphic in the next. The illustrations echo the representative nature of the poetry, using images from nature and taking advantage of the emotional quality of color. There is an introduction by the author, a page about Emmett Till, and literary and poetical footnotes to the sonnets. The artist also gives detailed reasoning behind his choices. This underpinning information makes this a full experience, eminently teachable from several aspects, including historical and literary—School Library Journal

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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Related files: Introduction: Bibliography of the Negro  Table of Contents:  Bibliography of the Negro  Preface: Bibliography of the Negro