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Nuba-Darfur-South Sudan Table



Books by Chinweizu


 The West and the Rest of Us (1975) / Decolonising the African Mind (1987) / Voices from Twentieth-century Africa (1988)


Invocations and Admonitions (1986); Energy Crisis and Other Poems (1978); Anatomy of Female Power  (1990)


 Towards the Decolonization of African Literature (1980)


Other Books


Julie Flint & Alex deWaal, Darfur: a short history of a long war. Zed Books, in association with International African Institute, 2005. 151 pages.

Gérard Prunier. Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Cornell University Press, 2005. 212 pages.

David Morse. The Iron Bridge (1998)


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Sudan: History of a Broken Land

It was the giant of Africa: a nation which once represented the greatest hope for peaceful coexistence between Arab and African, Muslim and Christian. That hope is all but gone. The promise of Sudan was just an illusion. It is already a fractured country and, in the longer term, this is unlikely to be an isolated matter of north and south breaking apart following the referendum on southern secession.

Separatist movements in regions such as Darfur and the Nuba Mountains are watching with more than curiosity. And it is not just Sudan: in other African and Arab countries independence factions are eying developments with a view to making their move either through the ballot box or the gun.

In the run-up to the referendum, I traveled to Sudan to make the film. I have been fortunate enough in my life to have visited most of the world’s countries and yet, this would be the first time I had set foot in Africa’s largest. . . . I also discovered self-delusion: in the coffee shops, restaurants and streets, the vast majority of people I spoke with wanted desperately to believe that it was not too late and that, surely, the South will never leave the union. It will.

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South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.

What is now South Sudan was part of the British and Egyptian condominium of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and became part of the Republic of the Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011. On 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.

After on and off civil wars, South Sudan is one of the poorest countries with possibly the worst health situation in the world.—Wikipedia 

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Racism: A History, the 2007 BBC 3-part documentary explores the impact of racism on a global scale. It was part of the season of programs on the BBC marking the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. It's divided into 3 parts.

The first, The Colour of Money . . . Racism: A History [2007]—1/3

Begins the series by assessing the implications of the relationship between Europe, Africa and the Americas in the 15th century. It considers how racist ideas and practices developed in key religious and secular institutions, and how they showed up in writings by European philosophers Aristotle and Immanuel Kant.

The second, Fatal Impact . . . Racism: A History [2007] - 2/3

Examines the idea of scientific racism, an ideology invented during the 19th century that drew on now discredited practices such as phrenology and provided an ideological justification for racism and slavery. The episode shows how these theories ultimately led to eugenics and Nazi racial policies of the master race.

And the 3rd, A Savage Legacy . . .  Racism: A History [2007] - 3/3

Examines the impact of racism in the 20th century. By 1900 European colonial expansion had reached deep into the heart of Africa. Under the rule of King Leopold II, the Belgian Congo was turned into a vast rubber plantation. Men, women and children who failed to gather their latex quotas would have their limbs dismembered. The country became the scene of one of the century's greatest racial genocides, as an estimated 10 million Africans perished under colonial rule.

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China to Loan South Sudan $8 Billion—30 April 2012—China has agreed to loan oil-rich South Sudan eight billion dollars for infrastructure development, according to Juba government spokesman, Barnaba Mariel Benjamin. “It will fund roads, bridges, hydropower, agriculture and telecommunications projects… within the next two years,” he said, giving details of a visit this week to China by South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir. “Details (of the projects) will be defined by the ministers of the two countries and by the Chinese firms in charge of the work,” said the spokesman for the world’s youngest nation. Energy-hungry China is the largest purchaser of oil from South Sudan, which proclaimed independence last July, and is also a longstanding business partner of Sudan from which it also buys oil.—AfricanGlobe / Modern Chinese Tanks for the Sudan

China: A Strategic Partner of the New Nation of South Sudan—Luka Biong Deng—16 April 2012—The Republic of South Sudan, the newest member state of the UN, has entered into a world that is stratified into the top billion people who are prosperous, middle four billion of people who are developing and on track to be prosperous and bottom billion of people who are struck at the bottom with appalling living conditions.

Also the people living in the countries of the bottom billion have been in one or another of the four traps: conflict trap, natural resource trap, land-locked and bad neighbours trap and bad governance in a small country trap. It would certainly not require much efforts of where to position the newest member of the United Nation in the current economic and political stratification of the world. South Sudan falls not only in the bottom billion but it is at the bottom of the bottom billion and is virtually exposed to all the four traps experienced by the bottom billion. . . . There are five basic goals that the Government of South Sudan could seek to accomplish during President Salva Kiir’s visit to China. First, the visit could be used to reposition South Sudan as strategic partner to China not only in terms of South Sudan’s economic potentials, but also in terms of its position in the region. Second, the visit could assure China of South Sudan’s commitment to maintaining good relations with Sudan, including exporting its crude oil through the pipelines in Sudan if Khartoum is willing to settle for internationally accepted fees.

Third, the visit could serve to articulate the strategic importance that South Sudan ascribes to the diversification of its pipelines and the need for China to assist not only in the feasibility studies and impact assessments associated with the alternative pipeline but also in its funding.

Fourth, the visit could make it clear to China that if not resolved, the unfinished business of the CPA in terms of popular consultation for the people of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, the referendum for the people of Abyei area, and demarcation of the North-South border will continue to haunt the relationship between the two states. China is uniquely positioned to exert diplomatic pressure on Khartoum to resolve these pending issues.

Fifth, the visit could ensure access to concessional loans for development of infrastructure (telecommunication, roads, power generation and sports) and for agricultural ‘green revolution’. China is a huge country and shifting its policy to include a focus on an independent South Sudan is a mammoth task. But with hard work and patience, our mutual interests align enough to remain hopeful for a strong relationship in the years to come.—SudanTribune

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Arresting Bashir for Genocide

Black Enslavement: Arab and European Compared (Chinweizu)

Blood, Ink, and Oil  (Morse)

CAACBA Congratulates South Sudan (Chinweizu)

Clinton and Obama on Darfur (Morse)

Darfur Again and the Misery  (Ablorh-Odjidja)

Deng and Alek: Lovers Paradise Lost (Anonymous)

Discussion of Arab Racism in Africa (Bankie and Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem)

In Search of Africans

Kola Boof speaks on Deng Ajak

Lessons and Warnings from South Sudan  (Notes from Bakie Bankie, Gaddafi, and Chinweizu)

Letter from Chinweizu

Lost Boys in Southern Sudan (Morse)

Modern Chinese Tanks for the Sudan

Pan-African Nationalist Thought and Practice (Bankie)

President Omar al-Beshir (Lewis)  

Racism: Arab and European Compared (Chinweizu)

Reparations and the Pan-African War on Genocide (Chinweizu)

Reparations for Darfur: A Resolution (Chinweizu)

Response of Southern Sudanese Intellectuals to African Nationalism

The Sudan (poem Andrea Barnwell)

South Africa and Darfur -- Fact Sheet (Jibril)

Southern Sudanese Intellectuals and African Nationalism (Ajuok)

South Sudan in Sudan-Situation Analysis (Bankie)

Strategic Geopolitical Vision of Afro-Arab Relations

Towards a Strategic Geopolitical Vision of Afro-Arab Relations

USAfrica: A Mortal Danger for Black Africans  (Chinweizu)  

 What Can We Learn from Darfur?  (Morse) 

When Does Ethnic Identity Turn into Racism

Why South Sudan Wants Obama to Lose (Mulumba)

Wole Soyinka & Chinua Achebe on Darfur Crisis

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Related files

African Renaissance

The African World

Appeal to African Heads of State (Malcolm X)

Barack Obama: The Death of White Supremacy? (Discussion)

Bearing the Owners' Names & Other Burdens (Lewis)

Black Education and Afro-Pessimism (Hayes)

DuBois Speaks to Africa 

Kip's Folly: A Black Commander for U.S. Forces in Africa

Kola Boof Table

Nigeria and White Supremacy Chinweizu)  

President Robert G. Mugabe's UN Speech

Transitional Writings on Africa (Table)

We Won't Budge: An African Exile in the World

Where Is the Love of All Things African? (poem)

Why Africa Is Not Israel (Lewis)

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Significant Links

Beautiful South Sudan Ladies... (video)

Crisis In Darfur/ Sudan  video)

Darfur - Sudan  (video)

Selling Girls in Sudan  (video)

South Sudan Girls Rock!!  (video)

Sudan: The Silent Genocide  (video)


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Southern Sudan minister shot dead  

Juba—South Sudan's minister for rural development and co-operations  Jimmy Lemi Milla has been shot dead. The southern army spokesperson said. The incident comes only days after referendum results confirmed that the region will become the world's newest independent state on July 9. South Sudan's army spokesperson Philip Aguer said. "The minister was shot dead  inside his ministry on Wednesday by a driver working at the ministry who also killed a guard at the doorway and then shot himself." . . .

Violence in the south remains persistent six years after a peace deal ended decades of north-south civil war. Ethnic tension and tit-for-tat cattle raids killed an estimated 3,000 people in 2009 alone, although clashes had subsided ahead of the January referendum.—Africau

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International Criminal Court Calls for the Arrest

Of Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir for Genocide

A decade after 120 states met in Rome in July 1998 to approve a treaty creating the International Criminal Court (ICC), its prosecutor has moved the court to the centre of world attention. The decision of its prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo on 14 July 2008 to charge Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir with genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes is a transformative event for the ICC and for the intractable Darfur war.


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Many only caught sight of the genocide in Sudan when the war intensified in Darfur. But genocide had been long practised in south Sudan, as well as rape as a weapon etc. Some two million plus lost their lives as a consequence. Please find two attachments entitled 'bombings' which capture bombings and aerial activity by Khartoum in south Sudan in a window period of some 5 weeks in june/july 2002. B.F.Bankie

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Qaddafi apologizes for Arab slave trade—12 October 2010—By Sallie PischCAIRO: Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi apologized for the slave trade on behalf of Arabs at the second Afro-Arab summit in Libya on Sunday. It may be the first time an Arab leader has admitted—much less apologized for—enslaving Africans. While completely unprecedented, the statement falls in line with Qaddafi’s decade-long policy of aligning himself with African nations.

“I regret the behavior of the Arabs… They brought African children to North Africa, they made them slaves, they sold them like animals, and they took them as slaves and traded them in a shameful way. I regret and I am ashamed when we remember these practices. I apologize for this,” Qaddafi was quoted as saying.

A number of African leaders, including Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, were in attendance at the summit which covered topics ranging from the Palestinian issue to Sudanese separation.

Gaddafi continued his statement by saying, “Today we are embarrassed and shocked by these outrageous practices of rich Arabs who had treated their fellow Africans with contempt and condescension.” Gaddafi’s statement was broad, leaving a time reference open for debate.

There is very little documentation about the African enslavement in the Arab world. Most documentation and research focuses on the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but until the turn of the 19th Century, Arab slave traders dealt in a lucrative business in African slaves from the Congo, Rwanda, and particularly East Africa. In the middle of the ninth century, a revolt of the Zanj, African slaves held in modern-day Iraq, lasted for nearly fifteen years.BikYaMasr

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B. F. Bankie  and K. J. Mchombu, eds. Pan-Africanism/African Nationalism: Strengthening the Unity of Africa and Its Diaspora (2008)

The first edition of this publication was based on the proceedings of the 17th All African Students Conference (AASC) held in 2005 in Windhoek, Namibia, which series began in 1988. It covered the major issues arising for the unity movement from the 2005 conference, with diverse contributions from a broad range of participants, including a head of state, the head of a liberation movement, youth, students and various other concerned social groups and individuals.

This second edition came about in the context of the prior neglect of developments in the Afro-Arab borderlands and their impact on Africans both at home and abroad, as well as on the unity movement.

The books moves from continental unity to Pan-African national unity, which is constituted by Africa south of the Sahara and the east [Arabia, north Africa, Gulf states and points eastwards] and the west [Caribbean, Americas, Europe etc] Diasporas. It is dedicated to the Late John Garang de Mabior, in recognition of the role played by the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) in championing the legitimate aspirations of the marginalized in Sudan and the borderlands in general. This book provides an entry point towards the reformulation of the unity project and will be of interest to all those who have an interest in Africa and those who take Africans seriously.

This book needs to be taken seriously by all Darfurians.—Yahya Osman Mohamed (Darfur/Sudan )

An indispensable, must-to-read book, on the various interpretations of Pan-Africanism and African nationalism, not only for Sudanese, but more particularly for those, who are interested worldwide in the history of the struggle of Black Africans against Arab hegemony and dominance, seen from an African nationalist point of view. It tells the story and process through which millions of Black Africans have come to be subjugated and systematically marginalized by the Arabs and later by an Arabized breed of Black Africans.

Furthermore, it tells aspects of the struggle for mental and physical emancipation lead by the martyr of the marginalized people of the Sudan, the Late Dr John Garang de Mabior.Muhammad Jalal Hashim ( Nubia/Sudan )

Considering the identity crisis many Sahelians suffer from, the relevance of Pan-Africanism/African nationalism can not be overstated. A millennium of massive religious/ideological and human influx from the Middle East into the region has not only physically pushed the native population towards the south, but it has also displaced their African identity. The problem has become so profound that many of the Sahelian people cannot tell whether they are African, Arab or a mixture of both. This identity crisis is the root cause of the bloody wars of the Arabized regimes in Africa.This book preserves an inclusive Pan-Africanism/African nationalism that is open and respectful of other cultures.Garba Diallo ( Mauritania )

About the Authors—

Bankie Forster Bankie trained as a lawyer and has worked variously in administration, diplomacy, education and research. He currently lives and works in Juba, South Sudan, where he is associated with the Kush Institution and is actively interested in Afro-Arab relations and their impact on the African unity movement.

Kingo Mchombu is Professor and Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Namibia. In addition to his Pan African interests, his expertise is in information and knowledge sharing for the development of grassroots groups in Africa.

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Genocide, slavery, rape, and colorism are wrong.—It is now less than a month since I was appointed National Chairwoman of the United States branch of South Sudan's Sudanese Sensitization Peace Project (the SSPP).  This was a most ironic appointment considering the fact that I am a half-Arab Northerner, originally born Muslim, a "traitor" to the North.  I did spy work for the SPLA (South), and now, in my job rounding up celebrities and politicians to take a stance on behalf of Darfur and the 2011 secession of South Sudan, I find myself greatly pained that absolutely none of the African Presidents of the African Union are doing what they should to challenge and confront President Bashir's regime in Khartoum, even as they acknowledge that he, and in full disclosure, my former boyfriend, Hasan al Turabi, are responsible for carrying out genocide.

Millions of blacks around the world—whether their worlds be Johannesburg, Harlem, Dakar, London or Los Angeles—love to evoke the names "Nubia" and "Cush" to the point of overkill, yet as we get high linking ourselves to some glorious ancient past, we place little stock in fixing our present or constructing our future. Kola Boof

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A New Chance for Darfur—Mr. [Ambassador Richard] Williamson, who is President Bush’s special envoy to Sudan, wrote a tough memo to Mr. Bush this fall outlining three particular steps the United States could take to press Sudan’s leader, President Omar Hassan al-Bashir:

The United States could jam all communications in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital. This would include all telephone calls, all cellular service, all Internet access. After two days, having demonstrated Sudan’s vulnerability, the United States could halt the jamming.

The United States could apply progressive pressure to Port Sudan, from which Sudan exports oil and thus earns revenue. The first step would be to send naval vessels near the port. The next step would be to search or turn back some ships, and the final step would be to impose a quarantine and halt Sudan’s oil exports.

The United States could target Sudanese military aircraft that defy a United Nations ban on offensive military flights in Darfur. The first step would be to destroy a helicopter gunship on the ground at night. A tougher approach would be to warn Sudan that unless it complies with international demands (by handing over suspects indicted by the International Criminal Court, for example), it will lose its air force — and then if it does not comply, to destroy all its military aircraft on the ground. NYTimes

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Sudanese Government Forces Push Back Darfur Rebels—26 May 2009—Rebels attacked the military base in Umm Baru on Sunday (25 May 2009), setting off an eight-hour battle that stretched into the following day, Saiki said. Residents reported government airstrikes on the town on Monday night, he said.

''The government is in control'' of the town and base, Saiki said. ''We are promised humanitarian assistance'' for the displaced.

Twenty Sudanese soldiers and 43 rebels were killed, said army spokesman Brig. Gen. Osman al-Aghbash. There were 85 wounded from both sides, he said.

Saiki gave a different figure, saying 50 people were injured, most of them government soldiers, though there was at least one civilian among them.

On May 16, rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement seized a government military base in Kornoi, another northern Darfur town close to the border with Chad. Rebels remain in control of that town, Saiki said.

The war in Darfur began in 2003 when rebel groups took up arms against the government, complaining of discrimination and neglect. U.N. officials say up to 300,000 people have died and 2.7 million have fled their homes. NYTimes

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Manute Bol's Philanthropy As Great An Achievement As Prolific NBA Career

Though several news outlets had reported on Manute Bol's acute kidney disease in the past months, it still came as a shock to much of the world when the 7 foot 6 former NBA player died in Virginia at the age of 47.

Bol's height gave him a domineering presence on the court as well as premier shot-blocking ability (for comparison, Houston Rockets center Yao Ming is also listed at 7 foot 6).

However, few who didn't keep up with Bol's activities after his NBA career are aware of his consistent efforts to improve conditions for those in his homeland of Sudan. In fact, Bol spent nearly his entire fortune, and went bankrupt, donating money to organizations that were working in Darfur.

As his former teammates discuss in the video below, Bol had never heard of America or the game of basketball until he was 18. Overwhelmed by an amount of wealth unheard of where he came from, Bol dedicated his life to charitable endeavors in Sudan.

With Alliance for the Lost Boys, Bol worked to bring medical assistance and education to Sudan. Just last year, Bol was busy raising money to build a school when he contracted Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a skin disease that would ultimately take his life.

Bol also became politically active, campaigning for Sudanese politicians that he believed would help promote peace. HuffingtonPost

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Manute Bol

Manute Bol (English pronunciation:  October 16, 1962 – June 19, 2010 was a Sudanese-born basketball player and activist. Until the debut of Gheorghe Mureşan, Bol was indisputably the tallest player ever to appear in the National Basketball Association. Bol was believed to have been born on October 16, 1962 in either Turalie or Gogrial, Sudan. He was the son of a Dinka tribal chief, who gave him the name "Manute," which means "special blessing." Wikipedia

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The Sudan

                By Andrea Barnwell

Freedom is not an afterthought

Nor is it punctuated by a

Rare comma

Freedom is not dismissed

From vocabularies

Nor ignored

Where carnage and death

And destruction flow

Casually as if a mother’s

Child should always bleed

Away her life

Screaming horror

Crying why?


Freedom is not an afterthought

Nor is it punctuated by a

Rare comma

Freedom is not pushed aside

Like a fly swat

Crushed like a roach underfoot

Abhorred like a snake

Or a diseased rat



Freedom is a


Given in love

Through love


June 16, 2004

Poems  by Andrea Barnwell

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Response of Southern Sudanese Intellectuals to African Nationalism

By Albino Deng Ajuok 

Why South Sudan Want Obama to Lose White House Bid (Mulumba)  / Obama and the Israeli Lobby   (Uri Avnery)

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Britain and France Will Support Freezing Indictment of Sudan President

The British and French governments will back efforts in the UN to stall the issuance of an arrest warrant for Sudan President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir, the Guardian reported today. The newspaper said that officials from both capitals informed human rights activists that they have taken this stance to protect the peace process in Darfur and Southern Sudan.

The human rights advocates said that Britain and France will join the Arab League, African Union, China and Russia in backing a resolution by the UN General Assembly this month requesting a deferral of the charges against Al-Bashir. Arresting Bashir for Genocide

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Who’s Behind the Egyptian Influx into Sudan

Letter to the Editor by Luke Kuth Duk

The Southern Sudanese people are in a state of shock, bewilderment and uncertainty regarding the reasoning of the Sudan Peoples Liberation  Movement (SPLM) and its executive branch (GOSS) in allowing the infinite influx of Egyptians, Palestinians and other Arab nationalities into the country.

The preparations are well underway for the migration of five million Egyptians into Sudan under the pretext of coming, to return life, to the failed Al-Jazzera Cotton Scheme. As a result of this move, one might rightly think that the largest country in Africa is in fact short of indigenous people who can get the job done, or learn how to.

There are millons of marginalized Sudanese, who are in desparate need to work, and millions more scattered all across the globe, who love and cherish their country dearly, but were forced to leave when the current Islamic regime of the tyrant Omar Al-Bashir muscled themselves into power in 1989

The majority if not all of those refugees would love to return home and participate in development, but simply can’t due to the fact that, nothing has really changed in terms of the laws of the land and civil liberties. Sudanese from all walks of life, and especially from the marginalized regions, are still being subjected to racial profiling, harassed and arrested without reasons other than the colour of their skins. So, if Sudan is indeed one nation for all of its peoples, then why is it that one side of the coin could be able to arrive at such a drastic and highly suspicious immigration decision, without first consulting with the general public or even its partners in the government of national unity.

Infusing this large number of Arab nationalities is particularly suspicious and alarming considering the elections and the referendum are nearing. More disturbingly, the Sudanese nationality is no longer the sacred document it once was. Under the extremist Islamic regime, it is being issued even to those who didn’t ask for it, let alone qualify, as long as they are Arabs or fanatical Muslims. This has been going on for the length of this regime. So do your maths!

There is no other force in Sudan that has the authority and legality to put an end to the Arab’s immigration crisis other than the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. It’s time that the SPLM makes its stance very clear on this serious issue before they become suspect themselves. It’s that simple.

Source: Sudan Mirror, Nairobi/Juba,  18-28th July 2008,  page 7

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U.S. Fund Cultural Preservation Award Presented in Southern Sudan

By Isaac Billy


The US Government presented to the Government of Southern Sudan Ministry of Culture. Youth and Sports a check of 145 thousand Sudanese Pounds to allow for the preservation of Southern Sudan’s government archives.

In the project’s first phase, the Ministry and its partners, the British Institute of East Africa and the Kenya National Archives, will catalog and list the archive holdings. In the second phase, the Ministry and the Rift Valley Institute will proceed with digitization of documents.

This written history of Southern Sudan is currently stored in Juba in special shelters provided by the USAID Office of Transition Initiatives. Many documents were damaged and destroyed during the decades of civil war.

The Embassy and the Ministry signed a grant agreement earlier this year.

The grant was made possible by the Ambassador’s Fund for Cultural Preservation, which supports cultural preservation projects around the world each year. The projects represent the heritage of all geographic regions and encompass the preservation of museum collections and archives, historic building restoration and ethnographic documentation.

The Fund, created by the United States Congress in 2001, aims to assist developing countries in preserving museum collections, ancient and historic sites, and traditional forms of expression.

The Cultural Heritage Centre of the US Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, US Department of State, administers the US Ambassador’s Fund for Cultural Preservation. This particular project is administered with the assistance of the Office of Public Affairs of the Embassy in Khartoum.

Through a range of cultural preservation activities, the Bureau promotes cooperation with other countries to reduce the threat of pillage of irreplaceable cultural heritage, and to develop long-term strategies for preserving cultural property.

Source: The Juba Post, 4-7 August 2008, J uba, South Sudan, page 4.

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No Printing Press in South Sudan

Juba, South Sudan

South Sudan does not posses a printing press. All newspapers are printed in Khartoum or in Nairobi. English language papers serve the southern community in the South or those living in the Khartoum area. There used to be three main English language papers for Southerners. Some ten days ago the Sudan Tribune, headquartered in Khartoum, was closed down by the Khartoum government, who complained about its tone and specifically about some of its writers. The Tribune is looking at the possibility of printing in Kampala.It used to print in Khartoum.
The Citizen has just been closed down by Khartoum. The Citizen maintains its main editorial team in Juba and prints in Khartoum. The reasons for its closure was that it had recently appointed a Darfurian as its Khartoum based editor, whom the Khartoum authorities do not like Nhial Bol, its Editor in Chief has just travelled from Juba to Khartoum. He states that these incidents are typical of the climate in which the press operates in Sudan. According to him the press is now under pressure prior to the 2009 national elections.
This leaves only one English language daily serving  Southerners—this is the Khartoum Monitor, which has its editorial team in Khartoum where it prints. Regards, B.F.Bankie (2 September 2008)

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Sudanese Moving North to Israel—Excessively harsh socio-economic conditions and racist attitudes in Egypt seem to be the main reason why Sudanese refugees want to relocate to Israel. Of the Sudanese refugees now resident in Israel 71 per cent report verbal and physical abuse as the main reason for their fleeing Egypt. Some 86 per cent had refugee status with the UNHCR in Egypt, though those crossing the border spent an average of six months in detention upon arrival in Israel. Others are subject to indefinite detention. Sudan is considered an enemy state by the Israelis and Sudanese refugees are viewed as suspect. This is especially the case with Muslim Sudanese from Darfur and northern Sudan. Southern Sudanese are culturally more attuned to Israeli culture, and Israelis warm up to them.

 "The Israelis are suspicious of us because we are Muslim," complained a Sudanese originally from Darfur.  .  .  . There are an estimated 400,000 Sudanese refugees in Kenya, 400,000 in Chad and 100,000 in Egypt. Yet on the UN human development index, Israel stands at 23, Egypt at 111 and Kenya at 152. Chad is among the world's poorest and least developed nations and Sudan is not far behind. –Gamal Nkrumah.  

Sudanese refugees fleeing Egypt for Israel

Web links: Restriction of Humanitarian Aid     Eric Reeves on Sudan   Counter-Insurgency on the Cheap 

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The drift back to war: insecurity and militarization in the Nuba mountains

The Brief provides the context for understanding current tensions in the Nuba Mountains region of South Kordofan, where Nuba and Arab groups are becoming increasing militarized. It finds  that:

* The area is  highly militarized with both parties to the conflict actively violating the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), including by recruiting members of armed groups.

* Khartoum's paramilitary Popular Defence Forces (PDF) are being reorganized in the region on a sharper ethnic basis than in the past.

* Arabs returning to animal migration routes closed by the war are being armed, often through the PDF, with a corresponding mobilization by some settled tribes.

* UNMIS has done little to calm tensions, in contrast to the active efforts of the much smaller number of unarmed ceasefire monitors, the Joint Military Commission (JMC), which were present from 2002­05.

* There is considerable resentment among Nuba about how the CPA protocol on South Kordofan dealt with the region, providing little in the way of enforceable autonomy and deferring the most important questions on land ownership and access and  security arrangements.

The Brief concludes that discontent is turning to anger, and many now view war in the Nuba Mountains as inevitable.

The Issue Brief, Number 12 in the HSBA series, can be downloaded from:

For further information about the publication and the project, contact Claire Mc Evoy, HSBA Project Manager, at

Please let us know if you wish to be removed from this mailing list.

Sincerely, The HSBA Team Small Arms Survey / 47 Avenue Blanc / 1202 Geneva / Switzerland /

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SOUTHERN SUDAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (SSLA): MARTYRS,WAR-VETERANS AND WOUNDED HEROES TO BE REGISTERED by  Ladiong Anthony, extract from  page 3, Juba Post, Juba, South Sudan, 30 June-3 July 2008

The Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly (SSLA) Monday 23 June passed a recommendation demanding that the Ministry of  Sudan Peoples’ Liberation  Army (SPLA) Affairs make a roster of victims of the 21 year old civil war in Sudan. The victims specifically include widows, orphans, martyrs, war veterans and wounded heroes.

The resolution was passed after the findings of the SLAA Security and Public Order Committee, that nothing has been done for the fallen heroes about their post service benefits. SSLA passed the recommendations on the Report on the SPLA White Paper on Defence, through the leadership of the acting SSLA Speaker Hon Daniel Deng Monydit.

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SSLA RECOMMENDS IMMEDIATE DISARMAMENT by Lodiong Anthony, extract from page 3,Juba Post, Juba, South Sudan, 30 June-3 July 2008

The Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly (SSLA) has on Monday, June 23 recommended immediate disarmament of the civil armed population without distinction, concurrently with army encampment. The resolution was passed following a report on the Sudan Peoples Liberation  Army (SPLA) White Paper on Defence  presented by the SSLA Security and Public Order Committee chaired by Hon Retired General Ayoub Phillip Gaza

Reading that their general observations on the transformation, roles and functions of SPLA, Hon Ayoub lauded that the process of  disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR), assembling of forces, integration and deployment still faces difficulties and delays. Under the Chair of Acting SSLA Speaker Hon Daniel Deng Monydit, the august house passed the disarmament resolution including speedy screening, training and deployment of the undeployed officers and unassembled  army to ease the implementation of DDR and budget processes. Two weeks ago the Government of South Sudan (GOSS) President H.E Salva Kiir Mayardit issued a decree asking for the disarmament of Southern Sudan  communities carrying arms. In Jonglei State, the process has started in Akobo County. It has also commenced in Western and Northern Bar El Ghazal States. According to Upper Nile State DDR Coordinator Peter Gatwech, his state is getting prepared to conduct the disarmament exercise.

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The Sudan Sensitization Peace Project (SSPP)

SSPP raises the levels of consciousness within the global African community on Sudan issues and so impacts positively on the destinies of those involved in its interactive process.

SSPP is conceived, and implemented by concerned Africans, on the basis that Sudan is geo-strategically placed to impart a number of lessons relevant to the African experience.

SSPP is conceived as a two-way learning process bringing to Sudan the experience of the global African community.

The configuration of Sudan, the largest country in Africa, is not well known by Africans in general, both within the Continent and in the Western ( Americas, Europe etc ) and Eastern ( Gulf states, Arabia etc ) Diasporas, yet today Sudanese issues are world headlines. Their resolution provide solutions for similar problems in the Borderlands, from the Red Sea through to Mauritania, on the Atlantic.

SSPP will empower Sudanese to talk internationally to their issues, from their perspectives, to their fellow Africans, on the understanding that ultimately that constituency is the most effected by how the issues are resolved and how peace is attained.

Historical records establish the significance of the land which was and today is known as Sudan. Whether considered from the Asiatic or Western perspective, civilizations existed which impacted humanity in general. It was later that this initial sharing became an extractive process with people and materials being taken out and ideas put in. Similar historical patterns were experienced by Africans at home and abroad.

The challenge in the new period is to bring peace and development from within, in the face of external countervailing forces. Other parts of the world have realized national auto-development, on a sustained collective basis. The lessons from the component parts of the unity concept are not only relevant, but vital. Such microscopic scrutiny can only advance understanding, co-operation and integration.

January 2008

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Africom: The new US military command for Africa—A series of consultations with the governments of a number of African countries—including Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Djibouti, Kenya—following the announcement of Africom found than none of them were willing to commit to hosting the new command. As a result, the Pentagon has been forced to reconsider its plans and in June 2007 Ryan Henry, the Principal Deputy Under-Secretary of Defense for Policy told reporters that the Bush administration now intended to establish what he called “a distributed command” that would be “networked” in several countries in different regions of the continent. Under questioning before the Senate Africa Subcommittee on 1 August 2007, Assistant Secretary Whelan said that Liberia, Botswana, Senegal, and Djibouti were among the countries that had expressed support for Africom—although only Liberia has publicly expressed a willingness to play host to Africom personnel—which clearly suggests that these countries are likely to accommodate elements of Africom’s headquarters staff when they eventually establish a presence on the continent sometime after October 2008. Pambazuka

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Roba Gibia was born in Singo, Southern Sudan. He received his Bachelor of Arts & Education in Ain Shams University, Egypt (1987). He writes on Sudan affairs and publishes widely in newspapers in Sudan and websites at Sudan Tribune, Khartoum Monitor, Gurtong Peace Trust, Google International News, and Sudan MonitorMagazine in Uganda.

Gibia is author of John Garang and the Vision of NEW SUDAN (Fall 2008): The objective of this new book is to tackle the crux of Dr. John Grang’s vision of the new Sudan. Roba Gibia shows the power greed and inhumane behaviour of the ruling elites in the central government are the causes to the  marginalization, suffering, war, deaths and destruction of the majority of the Sudanese people.

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Will Africa Let Sudan Off the Hook?—The expected issuance of an arrest warrant for President Omar Hassan al-Bashir of Sudan by the International Criminal Court tomorrow presents a stark choice for African leaders—are they on the side of justice or on the side of injustice? Are they on the side of the victim or the oppressor? The choice is clear but the answer so far from many African leaders has been shameful.

Because the victims in Sudan are African, African leaders should be the staunchest supporters of efforts to see perpetrators brought to account. Yet rather than stand by those who have suffered in Darfur, African leaders have so far rallied behind the man responsible for turning that corner of Africa into a graveyard. NYTimes

Diaspora and African Slavery 

Bankie, B.F. Mchombu,K (ed). 2006. 199-207, 210. Pan-Africanism, strengthening the unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan

Diop, C. A. 1974. The African origin of civilization: Myth and reality. New York : Lawrence Hill Books

Diop, C. A. 1989. The cultural unity of Black Africa: The domains of matriarchy and patriarchy in classical antiquity. London: Karnak House

Ga’le, S.F.B.T. 2002. Shaping a free Southern Sudan: Memoirs of our struggle 1934-1985. Torrit: Loa Catholic Parish Council

Hunwick, J.O. 1993. African slaves in the Mediterranean world: A neglected aspect of the African Diaspora. In Harris (ed), 1993b

Lagu, J. 2006. Sudan, odyssey through a state, from ruin to hope. Omdurman : Omdurman Ahlia University

Lemelle, S. 1992.14. Pan-Africanism for beginners. New York : Writers and Readers Publishing Inc.

Nabudere, D.W. 2007.6-34. Cheik Anta Diop : the social sciences, humanities, physical and natural sciences and transdisciplinarity. Pretoria. CARS/UNISA – in International Journal of African Rennaissance Studies 2 (1) 2007, Pretoria: UNISA

Prah,K.K. (ed) 2005. 2, 8-9, X111, 147. Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans. Cape Town: CASAS

Prah, K. K. 2006.196. The African Nation. Cape Town: CASAS

Redkey,E.S. 1969.1. Black exodus, Black nationalist and back to Africa movements 1890-1910. New Haven: Yale University Press

Segal, R.1995. The Black Diaspora. London : Faber and Faber

Segal, R. 2001. Islam’s Black slaves : The other Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

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African RenaissanceKwame Nkrumah, Kenyatta, and the Old Order / God Save His Majesty  

For Kwame Nkrumah  Night of the Giants /   The Legend of the Saifs  /  Interview with Yambo Ouologuem   

Yambo  Bio & Review     African Renaissance (Journal)

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Escape from Slavery: The True Story

of My Ten Years in Captivity and My Journey to Freedom in America

By Francis Bok

Slave: My True Story

By Mende Nazer

Alek: My Life from Sudanese Refugee to International Supermodel

By Alek Wek

*   *   *   *   *'s 25 Best Selling Books



#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
#2 - Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree
#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
#4 - Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper
#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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Daunting Documentary Details Ethnic Cleansing in Sudan—While the U.S. has seen fit to intervene to save the citizens of Iraq from Saddam Hussein, it’s sad to think that nothing is being done about the ongoing ethnic cleansing in Sudan. At last count, over 2000 villages had been destroyed and about 400,000 people had perished in the government-sanctioned slaughter which has sent hundreds of thousands scurrying across the border to refugee camps and 2,000,000 more simply on the run. As delineated in Darfur Diaries, the problem stems from Sudan’s Arab-run government giving free rein to the Janjaweed, a federation of nomadic Muslim tribes to pillage Africa’s largest nation’s black communities. Sudan’s air force actively assists the aggressors in this endeavor by bombing and strafing not only villages, but even the refugee camps. The film Darfur Diaries was shot in 2004 by three Westerners, Aisha Bain, Jen Marlowe and Adam Shapiro, intrepid filmmakers who risked life and limb to bring back interviews which just tug at your heartstrings.

We hear from women who have been brutally raped, from starving orphans scarred by watching their parents die, and from lost souls at their wit’s end living under trees and with nowhere to go.

 An urgent call for the world community to do much more than merely observe this ever-worsening humanitarian crisis as it continues to unfold.— Excellent (4 stars). Unrated. In Arabic and English with subtitles. Darfur Diaries Running time: 55 minutes. Studio: Cinema Libre Studio. DVD Extras: Interviews, photos and featurettes.Kam Williams 

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The Oil Kings: How the U.S., Iran and Saudi Arabia

Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East

By Andrew Scott Cooper

The Oil Kings: How Nixon courted the shah—Joan Oleck—The transcripts of the oil deals reveal how Kissinger referred to Nixon as "that drunken lunatic" with "the meatball mind," and how he negotiated a settlement with Iran that cost US oil companies their strategic hold in the Saudi oil industry.Rigged defence contracts also emerge in these pages, most notably the one fashioned by Nelson Rockefeller, then the governor of New York, who solicited Kissinger's help to save New York-based Grumman Corporation from bankruptcy by pushing the shah to purchase the company's F-14 jet fighter. That deal would help carry New York state for the Nixon-Agnew ticket in the 1972 election. For his part, the shah leapt at the opportunity. There's more, such as the preparation of military contingency plans—which called for Iran to invade Kuwait and Saudi Arabia—and the war games that were held in the Mojave Desert to prepare for such an eventuality.

Then there are the millions of dollars in kickbacks paid by Grumman and Northrop to "middlemen" in Iran, facilitating all those weapons sales. And the scariest deal of all: Nixon's agreement to sell nuclear power plants and fuel to Iran, with no apparent concern for the wider implications such a transaction might hold.—TheNational 

Derrick Bell Law Rights Advocate Dies at 80  / Civil Rights Activist Fred Shuttlesworth dies at 89

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Allah, Liberty, and Love

The Courage to Reconcile Faith and Freedom

By Irshad Manji

In Allah, Liberty and Love, Irshad Manji paves a path for Muslims and non-Muslims to transcend the fears that stop so many of us from living with honest-to-God integrity: the fear of offending others in a multicultural world as well as the fear of questioning our own communities. Since publishing her international bestseller, The Trouble with Islam Today, Manji has moved from anger to aspiration. She shows how any of us can reconcile faith with freedom and thus discover the Allah of liberty and love—the universal God that loves us enough to give us choices and the capacity to make them. Among the most visible Muslim reformers of our era, Manji draws on her experience in the trenches to share stories that are deeply poignant, frequently funny and always revealing about these morally confused times.

What prevents young Muslims, even in the West, from expressing their need for religious reinterpretation? What scares non-Muslims about openly supporting liberal voices within Islam? How did we get into the mess of tolerating intolerable customs, such as honor killings, and how do we change that noxious status quo?

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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