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In Libya the National Transitional Council is launching an armed rebellion and targeting Black Africans, attempting

to break the bonds established by Nasser and Nkrumah.  They are targeting Black Africans to destabilize

and isolate Libya, attack African unity by trying to create a rift between Black and Arab



Obama Bombs Africa: Targets African Unity

By Sekou Nkrumah

Chairman of the Pan-African Improvement Organization


Akili Mosi Secka

Organizer, People’s Committee, PANIO


In an article written on 9th July 2009, in the Insight Newspaper we quoted Obama, then U.S. Senator.  He gave the Leon Sullivan Foundation a response to their Presidential Town Hall Meeting Africa Questionnaire in October 2007.  Obama stated Africom, “should serve to coordinate and synchronize our military activities with our objectives in Africa.”  He went on to say, “there will be situations that require the United States to work with its partners in Africa to fight terrorism with lethal force.”  Thus asserting, “having a unified command operating in Africa will facilitate this action.”  

We contend that by bombing Libya, beginning on 19 March 2011, Obama is not fighting terrorism, but as we entitled our 9 July 2009 article, “Obama Brings International State Terrorism to Ghana,” he is actually targeting African unity with international state terrorism through Africom for Libya’s oil.  In a statement made by Vice Admiral Robert Moeller, the deputy of Africom, on 28 February 2008, speaking at an Africom conference held at the National Defense University at Fort Mcnair, he declared, “the free flow of natural resources from Africa to the global market was one of Africom’s guiding principles and oil disruption is a major challenge to U.S. interest in Africa.”

Obama represents a settler colonial state that exterminated over 100 million Indigenous People of the Western Hemisphere.  He is a representative of the most rapacious class that has ever existed in the history of mankind, the U.S. capitalist class.  He is the Commander in Chief of a sadistic war machine unlike the world has ever seen.  Obama is waging war on Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Libya.  His ultimate objective is to take control over the resources, in particular oil, in Africa, on behalf of the European capitalist class of the U.S. and Europe.

U.S. Imperialism Attacks Pan Africanism and Libya for Oil

In Africa the U.S. has historically since World War II applied this strategy of terrorism and taking resources through the machinations of neocolonialism to prevent African unity (Pan Africanism and socialism).  The bombing of Libya is a continuation of this policy.  Libya is Africa’s last Pan Africanist and socialist state in Africa, and like a vampire who hasn’t seen a human in years, Obama and European imperialism are salivating at the possibility of sucking its oil.

To illustrate the point even further the population of the U.S. is 300 million, which is only 5% of the world’s population of six billion, yet it consumes 30% of the world’s production of oil.  The U.S. produces 5.9 million barrels of oil a day and imports 17.1 million barrels of oil a day.  This means that 74% of the United States oil consumption comes from other countries.  The world produces 80 million barrels of oil a day.  Libya ranks 15th in the world in production of oil—it produces 2 million barrels of oil a day.  Therefore, from these facts a logical deduction can be made that U.S. consumption of oil is out of proportion to its own production.  This suggests that U.S. deficiency in the production of oil causes it to use any means necessary for taking other countries oil for its own consumption levels, which is the most significant factor for the current bombing by Obama of Libya today.

If we take a cursory look at history we can see how U.S. policy and European imperialism has overtly and covertly destroyed Pan Africanist and socialist regimes in Africa.  The murder of Pan Africanist Patrice Lumumba by the U.S. CIA in 1960, the CIA sponsored counter revolution leading to the overthrow of Kwame Nkrumah’s government in 1966.  The destabilization from 1975 onward of Mozambique by U.S. and apartheid South Africa who backed RENAMO, and Angola by U.S. CIA and apartheid South Africa who backed UNITA, forcing of multi party political system and preventing the development of socialism by Frelimo and the MPLA

Coercing the SWAPO (Southwest People’s Organization) to abandon its Pan Africanistand socialist policies in Namibia before granting them independence in 1992, blocking the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania from coming to power in South Africa in 1994, destruction of socialism in the 1980s in Somalia and Ethiopia, forcing Eritrea to abandon socialism after the EPLF took power in 1990, squeezing Julius Nyerere to the point of abandoning socialism in Tanzania, after the death of Revolutionary Pan-Africanist and socialist Abdul Nasser of Egypt U.S. imperialism installed Anwar Sadat a reactionary with bribes, who retained the second largest amount of military assistance from the U.S. so as to cow tow to the menace of the middle east Zionist Israel, the coup d’etat against Ben Bella of Algeria in 1964, the coup d’etat against the Pan Africanist Modibo Keita of Mali in 1968, the murder of Amilcar Cabral of Guinea Bissau in 1972 as a Pan Africanist of African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde  (PAIGC) before the country was to declare independence, and the overthrow of the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG) in 1984, after the death of President Sekou Toure.

From these historical facts of the attacks on genuine Pan Africanist and socialist states and African revolutionaries by U.S. and European imperialism, one can see that Obama’s recent bombing of Libya coincides with the prevention of Africa from obtaining unity and socialism; a means by which the working mass can take control of their resources as the last stage in the defeat of neocolonialism in the quest for freedom.  These are the same neocolonial forces with Obama at its head that are attacking Zimbabwe, have bombed and split Sudan into two, and invaded, bombed, and wreaked havoc in Somalia.

In 1986, the U.S. under the Reagan regime bombed Libya for the very reason to take Libya’s oil.  After the revolution of 1 September 1969, the Libyan masses took their oil from British Petroleum in 1971, the Nelson Bunker Hunt Co. in 1973 (which was producing 209,475 barrels of oil daily), and Occidental, Essi, Mobil Oil, and Esso in 1974.  Qathafi nationalized the oil under the Libyan National Oil Corporation and distributed the revenue accumulated from the oil to the masses, the same as Kwame Nkrumah’s government in the 1950s and 1960s.  U.S. and British capitalists and policy makers never forgave Kwame Nkrumah nor Mummar Qathafi for taking the people’s resources back from them and distributing them to the working masses, so the CIA overthrow of Nkrumah is in line with the reactionary tribalist movement of Libyan’s trying to overthrow Qathafi and Obama’s bombing of Libya today.

Nkrumah’s Ghana and Qathafi’s Libya

To properly analyze the Obama led U.S. imperialist attack on Libya we can point to the similarities of Nkrumah’s Ghana and Qathafi’s Libya.  According to the Libyan Great Green Charter of Human Rights of the Jamahiriyan Era, “Democracy means popular power, not popular expression,” this is very similar to the 1960 Constitution of Ghana, Part 1, which states, “Powers of the People.”  In both systems democracy means “rule of the majority, not “expression” or “representation” of the majority, which is an expression of imperialist bourgeois democracy, and imposed on Ghana after 24 February 1966 CIA backed overthrow of Nkrumah, and other neocolonial puppet states.  Nkrumah’s Ghana and Qathafi’s Libya both practice socialism as their economic systems which ensure the rule of the majority by establishing collective ownership of the means of production and distribution of wealth; this insures economic independence with the masses owning, controlling, and ranking highest in distribution of wealth from the nations’ resources.

Independence of Thought and Practice

Both the Ghanaian and Libyan systems are based on independent ideologies, with Ghana basing its policies on Nkrumahism, outlined in the book written by Kwame Nkrumah, Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for Decolonization, and with Libya basing its policies on the Third Universal Theory, outlined in the The Green Book, written by Mummar Qathafi.  Both of these leaders expressed independent thought and applied their history and culture to guide their political and economic systems with righteous and just principles such as egalitarianism, collectivism, and humanism, which develop equality and peace, contrary to wicked and unjust ideas guiding U.S. and European imperialism such as elitism, individualism, exploitation, and profit motive, which creates class antagonism and constant war and bloodshed. 

Through an independent ideology and socialism they both smashed not only the material dependency on European manufactured goods but also the immaterial dependency many African leaders have for ideas from Europe and America.  Both Nkrumah and Qathafi raised the living standard of the masses of Africans in their countries to the highest level in all of Africa with great achievements in free health care, free education, accelerated infrastructural development and technological advancement—this is why they are attacking Qathafi just like Nkrumah. 

Both governments are Pan Africanist, providing ideological direction, leadership and resources to the struggle for a continental government for Africa.  Both Nkrumah and Qathafi took control of the resources from European imperialist states with Ghana and Libya taking over gold mines, banks, oil wells, and many other African resources for the development of African people, and away from the control of the capitalist profit motive.

Nkrumah’s Enemies are Qathafi’s Enemies

Both Nkrumah’s Ghana and Qathafi’s Libya have been under constant attack from U.S. and European imperialism with sanctions and CIA subversive activity with the aim of destabilization and regime change, even both leaders have survived assassination attempts, with the aim of turning revolutionary Pan African and socialist states into neo-colonial vassal states.  Counter revolutionaries have been sponsored in both Nkrumah’s Ghana and Qathafi’s Libya, in Ghana the U.S. CIA sponsored the National Liberation Movement (NLM) and National Liberation Council (NLC), the political and military arms of tribal, sectarian, and reactionary movements, to launch violent attacks against civilians to terrorize the population into submitting their resources to neocolonialism and to destroy the continental base and leading force for Pan Africanist.

In Libya the National Transitional Council is launching an armed rebellion and targeting Black Africans, attempting to break the bonds established by Nasser and Nkrumah.  They are targeting Black Africans to destabilize and isolate Libya, attack African unity by trying to create a rift between Black and Arab. This is nothing but George Bush’s so called war-on-terror strategy guided by Obama and Africom. This Libyan rebellion is counter revolutionary; backed by U.S., British, French, and Canadian imperialism.  It is xenophobic, tribalistic, sectarian, selfish and foolish, and of course backed by a military invasion of Africa by imperialist military forces of NATO, all of who are involved in wars in other parts of the world for oil.

With these similarities we can conclude the target of Obama’s U.S. imperialist bombing attack is to wipe out Pan Africanism and socialism in Africa and enthrone U.S. neocolonialism, to arm rob a divided Africa with Africom of its mineral resources with the full complicity of myopic and reactionary terrorized, greedy, and selfish, reactionary puppet leaders.

From the historical facts, it suggests that European imperialism views Africa as one with regards to the exploitation of its resources.   There is no Arab North Africa so far as their interest is concerned.  Consequently, the deduction Kwame Nkrumah made in the first Conference of Independent African States is just as clear today as it was in 1958:

Today we are one.  If in the past the Sahara divided us, now it unites us.  And an injury to one is an injury to all of us.  From this conference must go out a new message.  Hands off Africa!  Africa must be Free!

Obama a House Slave Turns International Terrorist

Therefore, Obama’s bombing Libya under the guise of protecting citizens of Libya, while killing citizens of Libya, is international state terrorism, and every African state and progressive and revolutionary African organization and freedom loving sovereign state must align themselves to stop Obama’s madness.  His representation and doing the dirty work of the European capitalist class knows no bounds.  He is the 21st century house slave who is the only head of State in the annals of history that is defending a constitution which defines his wife and children as 3/5 of a human being.  And with a pen stroke of the U.S. Supreme Court his family and in-laws can be reduced to second class citizenship (slavery). 

This is the kind of democracy from a settler colonial state, standing on the blood of tens of millions of indigenous people, that Obama wants to export into Africa and around the world. With the bombing of Africa, the entire world can see that the mask has been pulled off of Obama, and he is no political messiah or Noble Peace Prize winner.  The face that we see is a blood thirsty war mongering murderer terrorist, who is engaged in four wars killing innocent women, children and babies so as to steal their country’s, resources on behalf of European imperialism.

The question remains, when Israel was murdering thousands of Palestinians for a month in Gaza in 2009, where was Obama?  Why didn’t Obama establish a no-fly zone over Israel to protect Palestinians who are being bombed by Israeli jets currently?  In fact, Obama encouraged the killing of Palestinians on behalf of the Israeli Zionists, the same as his purposeful murdering of Libyans/Africans, Iraqis, Pakistanis, and Afghanistanis.  Obama is an enemy of Africa and humanity and the U.S. is the greatest threat to world peace and security. 

How can the U.S. claim to protect the lives of Libyan citizens, when hundreds of thousands of Iraqi citizens have been killed as a result of two wars and there are millions of Iraqi refugees in neighboring Arab countries, hundreds of thousands of Afghan citizens have lost their lives from U.S. bombing, and Pakistani citizens who have lost their lives as a result of U.S. drone missile attacks. 

The U.S. can’t even protect Africans who are in the U.S. as citizens because their citizenship is tenuous, they’re terrorized and anyone of them can be murdered justifiably by white policemen or a white mob.

Settler Colonialism and Genocide

America is a settler colonial state with all the corresponding characteristics: racism, genocide, occupation, exploitation, reactionary ideology, unjust laws and double standards, religious justification, class divisions, aggression, arrogance, immorality, and hypocrisy.  Obama is a descendant of Africans from Kenya and European settlers.  This means he is not indigenous to the Americas.  What many people fail to analyze about Obama because of his deceptive façade and imperialist propaganda is that Obama is at the Head of a settler colonial state with all the corresponding characteristics attached to himself and his policies.  Obama as the President of America does not begin in Kenya; he begins in 1607, with the first British settlement of Jamestown on the land of the Powhatan Confederacy

His foreign policy started with the mass murder of the indigenous people, by bloodthirsty white supremacists, who committed no other crime than to allow starving Europeans into their land to find food, shelter, and friendship.  These European decided to exterminate the indigenous population based on the white supremacist doctrine of “manifest destiny.”  They recognized the “natural” but not the “civil” rights of the indigenous people to their land, with natural rights not recognized in the U.K/U.S. settler colonial courts.  They imposed laws of armed land theft, war, and genocide, such as the Indian Removal Act of 1831 and the Northwest ordinance, waging countless wars of genocide with biological warfare (putting smallpox infected blankets inside the indigenous populations) and naked terrorism (paying money for indigenous people’s scalps).  Obama is just a continuation of the ideology and practice of the genocidal and warmongering system of American state terrorism, now on a worldwide scale—without changing its spots.

Qathafi Fights for Humanity

Qathafi, in sharp contrast to Obama, after leading the Libyan masses to take control over Libya’s wealth from U.S. and European capitalist oil companies and military bases developed principled relationships and alliances with oppressed people throughout the world fighting against tyranny, oppression, and exploitation, for their rights as human beings.  This can be demonstrated by the principled relationship of Qathafi and the Jamahariya to the organized forces of the Indigenous People of the Western Hemisphere.  Many indigenous nations began coming to Libya for support since the late 1970s and by 1988, from 30 January to 2 February, the “First International Conference for the Liberation of the Indigenous Nations of the Americas,” was held in Libya.  This conference was hosted by the Libyan Peace Committees and attended by 163 Indigenous leaders from Canada, the U.S., Central and South America, to form a United Front for Liberation of the Indigenous People of the Western hemisphere. 

In 1991, Libya continued its strong support for the Indigenous people of the Americas, with the International People’s Committee awarding them the, “Qathafi Prize for Human Rights.”  Qathafi has consistently supported the Palestinians, awarding them the “Qathafi Prize for Human Rights,” in 1990, for their struggle against Israeli zionism/settler colonialism and genocide while Obama arms Israel to the teeth to drop bombs on women and children in Gaza. While watching silently with tacit approval, he illegally claims East Jerusalem for the Israeli Zionist.  Qathafi supports Africa’s struggle against settler colonialism and genocide in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia, awarding the “Qathafi Prize for Human rights” to Nelson Mandela in 1989 while he was languishing in an apartheid prison cell and supporting Mugabe and Zanu-PF against U.S./U.K. sanctions designed to punish them for defeating the white supremacist settler state Rhodesia.

While Obama attacks freedom fighters and continues the use of the weapons of sanctions, arms supply, and international propaganda to maintain as much land and resources under the control of the European settlers in Southern Africa for white supremacy and settler colonialism as he can.  Qathafi supports the struggle of the Indigenous People of the Western Hemisphere while Obama represses their liberation movement through the Bureau of Indian Affairs in North America and targets their leadership in Central and South America with the CIA and U.S. military, like the seven military bases the U.S. is occupying in Columbia, and the U.S. attacks against the Indigenous President of Bolivia, Evo Morales Qathafi is a freedom fighter for human dignity, integrity, value, equality, and peace, while Obama is the capitalist class 21st century house slave and agent of genocide, war, and international state terrorism.

Continuing Nkrumah’s Legacy

We are of the firm opinion that Mummar Qathafi  is the leading Pan Africanist and socialist at the Head of State level in Africa.  He has formally proposed a “United States of Africa” in the African Union at the level of the Heads of State, calling for a common citizenship, passport, and foreign policy, elimination of artificial colonial boundaries, central bank and common currency, President, and military high command.  He was elected Chairman of the African Union by the African Heads of State.  He was the driving force behind the changing of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to the African Union (AU) and Libya hosted the meeting in Sirte for the African nations to declare they are united in an African Union.  Qathafi has openly stated he is fighting to implement the objective of Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah which is a continental government with a socialist economic system—Pan Africanism

Qathafi has given all kinds of support to Africans fighting for liberation throughout the entire continent of Africa and throughout the entire world.  He has openly attacked imperialism, neocolonialism, and racism in word and with concrete action; particularly support for indigenous national liberation movements against settler colonial state occupation.  Libya has been socialist from the beginning of the 1st September 1969 revolution led by Mummar Qathafi .  The means of production in Libya, particularly the oil wealth, belongs to the masses of the people and is used to provide their needs.  Libya has the highest standard of living in all of Africa.  The Libyan people receive free water, electricity, education, health care, and enjoy human dignity and integrity, under their socialist economic system.  Libya nationalized their oil from capitalist corporations from the U.S., Britain, and Italy, and made it the collective property of the masses of the people. 

Libya has withstood sanctions, CIA sabotage, and military attacks from American imperialism; even assassination attempts on Qathafi and his family, and still maintained socialism, mass ownership, and control of their resources, and support for Pan Africanism, liberation movements throughout Africa and the world, while fighting against all forms of injustice.  Libya has no homelessness, no joblessness, with no class controlling the needs of others.  Libya has removed U.S. and British military bases from its soil and placed the nation’s resources under the full control of the people’s armed forces.

Obama’s Contempt for the African Masses

We call on all Africans and freedom loving people worldwide to fight against this attack on Africa “by any means necessary” to uphold Libya as a Pan Africanist and socialist state.  Obama and his masters, the capitalist class, will fail, and everyone will discover he is a prostitute and not a virgin.  He lived in Chicago with massive African homelessness, abject poverty, and insecurity—he even writes about it in his book.  He does nothing about the mass African homelessness, mass unemployment, mass illiteracy, drug epidemic, rampant homicides, moral decadence, racism against Africans, murders of Africans by police, and unequal wealth distribution, elitism, and opulence in the midst of extreme poverty and hopelessness. 

Obama presides over the inhuman treatment of Africans in America by the white supremacist settler colonial state; even condemning Africans for demanding reparations for the crime against humanity of their enslavement.  He does this while coming to Africa to bomb the country with the highest standard of living in all of Africa; a country with a leader who denounced the enslavement of Africans as a crime and demanded reparations for its victims.  Obama has become the enemy of Africans worldwide with his bombing of mother Africa!

The U.S. invasion of Libya is a continuation of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Raid, colonialism, and neocolonialism.  All of these “crimes against humanity” by the United States and their European allies have been going on for 500 years with impunity.  Criminals and murderers cannot be allowed to keep their stolen property—be it human or material.  We are therefore calling on all Africans to seize all properties and assets and liberate them from these countries invading Africa and dropping bombs on Libya to steal Africa’s oil.  The U.S., Britain, France, Canada, Italy, and all other countries who have committed “crimes against humanty” against African people cannot keep resources in Africa while they invade, bomb, murder, and steal in Africa.  It is time for Africans to take our resources from imperialism while one of our strongest sons, Mummar Qathafi , is standing up defiantly to them.  This includes gold, diamonds, timber, oil, bauxite, manganese, buildings, and all other assets, properties, and resources in Africa.

The African masses are watching the leaders of Africa and the African world and will judge the way they confront this U.S. military invasion of Africa, especially those with U.S. troops in their territories and who have made military pacts with Africom.

Victory to Qathafi!

Victory to Libya!

Victory to Pan Africanism!

Victory to Socialism!

Victory to the African Revolution!

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Responsibility of a Pan-African Socialist  A speech by Osagyefo  /   Osagyefo on African Renaissance 


The Wealth of the West  Was Built on Africa's Exploitation (Richard Drayton)

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Africa Is Burning Forum

NYC Emergency Forum on American Led War on Africa

March 27, 2011

Contact:  Baba John Watusi Branch OR Minister P.D. Menelik Harris


JAMAICA, NY. As the African Union continues the call for foreign intervention to halt in Libya, Africa, African Diaspora leaders are planning to meet in Jamaica, NY in an emergency forum called “Africa is Burning”. The forum will be addressed by Dr. Molefi K. Asante, a leader of Afrocentricity International and a member of WADU Executive Support Council. The meeting is a response to the assault against Libya by U.S./European powers to promote their economic interests in Africa, to undermine the African Union attempt to establish a unified self-determined Africa and to promote European way of life as the supreme over other peoples of the world.

The forum will also give a frank assessment of the American led war against Africa. The U.S. is also conducting other major military campaigns against other Black and Brown people in the world with former Western colonial powers. America with its longstanding slavery and colonial experiences and now with a Black President should be a model for the struggle for justice in the world. However, it continues to trample on the rights of weaker nations of the world with the full activation of the modern high tech Anglo-American war machine. Like the slave raids on Africa over several centuries, this war driven to promote the interests of corporate greed, will continue over for years to send children of former enslaved Africans and the sons and daughters of Europe, to fight unjust wars in Africa and other parts of the world.

The attack on Africa was supported by key members of United Nations Security Council which is dominated by former colonial powers such as the U.S., Europe, members of the Arab League and a few unfortunate members of the African Union. The Security Council resolution which called for a no-fly-zone is a cover for the European military to implement their longstanding plan to reenter Africa to disrupt, divide and dominate key resource areas of Africa as a way to facilitate the reestablishment of their empire loss after committing genocide against each other during WW11. Unlike, the 19th century nationalist dogmatic and ravenous crave for wealth that drove them to self-destruct in both World War 1 and WW11, they are now unified in the 21st century as one powerful European capitalist block.

The meeting organize by WADU-NY is to continue in the tradition and exemplary leadership provided by the Pan African Movement after the formal ending of chattel slavery over a century ago. Pan Africnaists have consistently fought unconditionally to support our African Motherland to promote human rights, justice and freedom. Early African nationalist leaders such as Reverend Henry Highland Garnet, Bishop Henry McNeil Turner, Dr. Martin Delany M.D., and Harriet Tubman are examples of those who fought in the American Civil War to end chattel slavery. They and those like Booker T. Washington, Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois and Reverend Edward Blyden initiated the Pan African Movement following the formal enslavement of Africans in the late 19th century.

The meeting in NYC is also a follow-up to the recent emergency meeting by key Pan African leaders in Georgia and other parts of the world. Pan African Diaspora leaders are calling for the following actions to be implemented:

1.     Immediate cessation of military assault on Libya by air, land, and sea;

2.     Implement the United States of Africa and the African High Command as a Pan African government and military command and control structure for the full integration and protection of Africa;

3.      All people of goodwill and Black communities to engage in continuous civil actions and mass demonstrations across the world against the military invasion of Libya as a priority phase for the re-colonization of Africa;

4.     African Union leaders to eliminate all foreign military bases, including Africom and other European bases in Africa; and

5.     The African Diaspora community leaders are urging the African Union to implement plans for the African Diaspora to gain dual-citizenship as a way to strengthen the resolve of the African Diaspora to invest and promote a sustainable and empowered 21st century Africa.

Other leaders like Omowale Clay of December the 12th Movement will participate and a representative from the African Union is also invited to update the Diaspora at this forum. For more information on the “Africa is Burning” forum on Thursday, April 7, 2011 in NYC, please contact 718-523-3312 or WADUPAM.ORG.

posted 27 March 2010 

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Africans Beware the Saviors of Libya  / US Senate discusses sending troops to Libya

  Libya, Africa, and the Victorians (Manheru)

Rehabilitating U.S. Military Intervention in the Age of Obama

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Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England

A Study in International Trade and Economic Development

By Joseph E. Inikori

Inikori's big book dispels any lingering doubts about the important part played by overseas trade in stimulating the innovation and enterprise that underpinned Britain's Industrial Revolution and makes a welcome attempt to add precision to our understanding of the linkages between slavery, Atlantic commerce, and long-run economic change.—Nuala Zahedieh, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, International Journal of Maritime History

Professor Inikori's ambitious book stressing the pivotal contribution of Africans (especially enslaved Africans) to England's industrialization is certain to persuade many readers. His thesis is provocative and may be relevant to contemporary political debates in the United States . . a book that merits very close attention.—
John Singleton, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, International Journal of Maritime History

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The Great Divergence

China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy

By Kenneth Pomeranz

This book makes, bar none, the biggest and most important contribution to our new understanding of the causes and mechanisms that brought about the great divergence' between the West and the rest of China in particular. . . . An entirely new and refreshing departure. Although he makes new comparisons between Europe, China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, Pomeranz also connects all these and more in a bold new sweep that should immediately make all previous and most contemporary related work obsolescent.—Andre Gunde Frank, Journal of Asian Studies

This book is very important and will have to be taken seriously by anyone who thinks that explaining the Industrial Revolution . . . is crucial to our understanding of the modern world. . . . [A] book so rich that fresh insights emerge from virtually every page.—Robert B. Marks, American Historical Review

Exhaustively researched and brilliantly argued. . . . Suffice it to say that The Great Divergence is undoubtedly one of the most sophisticated and significant pieces of cliometric scholarship to be published of late, especially in the field of world history.— Edward R. Slack, Jr., Journal of World History

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 8 April 2012




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