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Cheikh Anta Diop established that from the Cape to the Nile Delta Africa had been originally

populated by Black people and that the Egyptian civilisation, which proceeded Greece, was

at its inception Black African. Sharawy calls the relations in the Borderlands today ambiguous



Pan African Nationalist Thought and Practice

By B. F. Bankie

When Pan-Africanism began …. and who launched it will never be known.Esedebe 1994



Western cultural imperialism deliberately alienated and dislocated the people of African origin and descent from their own tools of self-expression as a people in relation to others in the universe. Esedebe dismantles the idea if the ‘civilising mission’ of colonialism, which rather sort to expropriate the land and the labour of the ‘native’ by way of his religious entrapment through the auspices of the missionaries and Imams. It was the United Nations World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, held in Durban, South Africa in 2001, which made the connection between the purveying of racism as a mode of thought control and exploitation, so that it served the interest of imperialism.

Factors that contributed to the development of Pan-African nationalist concepts

In essence, as it is apparent from the writings of its first proponents, the idea of Pan-African nationalism was intended to challenge the main activities of imperialist domination, namely, the slave trade, colonisation of Africa and racism (Thompson 1969: 3). These activities were at their height in the late 19th century. In actual fact, as Prah (1997: 24) indicates, one of the largest single factors that contributed to the ultimate task of the conceptualisation of the idea of Pan-Africanism by African intellectuals such as William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1940, 1963, 1964), Joseph Casely-Hayford (1911), George Padmore (1956), and others, was the Berlin Conference of 1885, at which Africa was carved up and apportioned amongst the Western powers without her consent. From the preceding argument it can be concluded that theoretically, as originally conceived Pan-Africanist thought was intended to be a counterpoint to the cultural and psychological effects of colonialism, neo-colonialism and racism.

The Slave Trade and the Experience of Slavery

From the very beginning of the operations of the slave trade, resistance and protest against the degradation of Africa and its people took various forms. ‘Africans transported across the Atlantic to Western plantations were unwilling victims of circumstances beyond their control’ (Thompson 1969: 4). The language of the abolitionist movements also formed the background to Pan-Africanism in its broader sense. Whilst noting this it is important to keep in mind that in the French, Portuguese, and Spanish speaking parts of Africa and the ‘New World‘, similar processes were going on. African nationalism was not only an Anglophone phenomenon, parallel movements, such as ‘Negritude‘ affected the global African community at different levels of intensity. Africans continued to resist Arab expansionism and domination in the Afro-Arab Borderlands, in the Sahel, through Sudan, to the Red Sea.

The meaning and content of Pan-African nationalist thought and practice

The Pan-African nationalist movement as a vehicle of protest that accommodated diverse dehumanising experiences of people of African origin and descent, with refernce to both the East and West Diasporas has no single founder or particular tenets that can be used as a definition (Ackah 1999: 13). Esedebe states that insinuations about the alleged permanent inferiority of the black man and assertions that he had contributed nothing to the comfort of humanity posed a challenge that some educated Africans took up.

According to Thompson (1969: 38), considering the factors that led to its birth as a socio-cultural movement of a people who were fighting to assert themselves in a world that was hostile to their existence, Pan-Africanism may be seen as an idea that:

…was concerned not only with protest but also with the fashioning of a coherent philosophy which would enable the African as well as ‘Negro’ man not only to enhance his material welfare but to elevate him from the centuries of humiliation which has been his lot and thus enable him to re-establish his dignity in a world that has hitherto conceded him none.

The five themes that can be said to have contributed in the conceptualisation of Pan African thought and practice are:

i.   Pan-Africanism: A Universal Expression of Black Pride and Achievement. In a process to subjugate and dominate people of African origin and descent imperialism alienated and marginalized the African cultural heritage. Two of the chief exponents of the notion of black pride are the Negritude poets, Aime Cesaire and Leopold S. Senghor. Around 1934 Cesaire and Senghor found a journal of their own named L’Etitudiant Noir, which they used as a vehicle to propagate their literary conception of Negritude. In South Africa the notion of Negritude was expressed through the Black Consciousness Movement that was led by Steve Bantu Biko (Ackah 1994: 14). Biko (1978: 91-92) explained the Black Consciousness ideology as ‘…an attitude of mind and a way of life, the most positive call to emanate from the black world for a long time.’

ii.   Pan-Africanism: A Return to Africa by people of African Descent Living in the Western Diaspora (i.e. Americas, Europe,  etc). As a way of protest against the merciless shipment of  Africans to Europe and the Americas Martin R. Delany, between 1831 and 1832  [planned to visit] Africa, which he referred to as ‘the land of my ancestry,’ and [in 1852] he published his call for Afro-Americans to emigrate from the USA. Though the National Emigration’s Re-emigration Project was not a success, it was of historical significance in that amongst other things, it produced a clear and politically well-founded statement of Pan-African nationalist ideas.

iii. Pan-Africanism: A Harbinger of Liberation. The brutal occupation of Africa—by the Western powers, especially after the Berlin Conference in 1885—was unacceptable to the people of African descent and a host of their intelligentsia. This epoch was characterised by activities of physical exploitation of Africa accompanied by the ideological torture of racism. One of the chief exponents of this [view] was Frantz Fanon whom Ackah (1999: 16) describes as ‘the revolutionary Pan-Africanist, from Martinique’—who took the liberation call personally to heart and to show his commitment he became physically involved in the struggle to end colonial rule by the French in Algeria just after the Second World War.

iv.   Pan-Africanism: The Political Unification of the Continent. Closely linked to the theme of the liberation of the African continent is the clarion call for the ‘…unity [of Africa] in the form of political and economic unification, [which] became the theme of Pan-Africanism’ (Ackah 1999: 17). Kwame Nkrumah became the chief exponent of this expression, ‘he believed that the only way to resolve the problems of imperialism and neo-colonialism in Africa was the formation of a unitary socialist government’ (Ackah 1999: 17). Contientalism ( ie Continental unity ) gave birth to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in May 1963 and in 2000-2001 the African Union (AU). The attempt in Accra, Ghana, in July 2007, to convert the AU into the United States of Africa failed.

v.   Pan-Africanism and the Eastern Diaspora (i.e., Arabia, Gulf States, North Africa etc). Pan-Africanism and African Nationalism, in essence the will to unite, were the motive forces for decolonisation; they brought real development (e.g. land ownership). In a changing world, like any liberatory philosophy, Pan-African nationalism demands continuous review, assessment, and update. In the struggles against racism and settler colonialism in the South, most did not know or ignored the problems in the Afro-Arab Borderlands stretching from Mauritania on the Atlantic, through Mali, Niger and Tchad to Sudan on the Red Sea.

Whereas change in the South had the support of the funds and publicity of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, geared to ensuring the safe transfer of investment, the enslavement of Africans in places such as Sudan was ignored. Few African internationalists, except the Ugandans, were found fighting alongside the African Nationalist Anya-Nya (Ga’le 2002: 349 ) in Sudan, who were precision bombed by the Khartoum government.

Arab-Led slavery of Africans, which is generalised in the Borderlands, is important because it affects directly contemporary Afro-Arab relations. It is an issue, which has been hushed-up in the past by both sides. Symbolically Arab-led slavery of Africans provides the dividing line for the aspirations of the African and Arab people for a better life through unity. Reparations for it, if pursued democratically, will assist the emancipation and development of both peoples. Reconciliation through reparations requires the end of denial and the admission of guilt. Nkrumah’s vision of continental unity ‘now’ remains a distant prospect, so long as both sides defend the status quo. Segal in his book on the Other Diaspora states that the Arab slave trade began some eight centuries before the Atlantic slave trade. Its numbers were much larger. Its gender ratio was two females to one male and it concentrated, and still does, on the children.

The campaign for reparations for the slavery of Africans in the Western Diaspora has been lead by the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’Cobra). Its work has connected with the on-going struggles for reparations in, for example, Namibia and Arabia.

Cheikh Anta Diop established that from the Cape to the Nile Delta Africa had been originally populated by Black people and that the Egyptian civilisation, which proceeded Greece, was at its inception Black African. Sharawy calls the relations in the Borderlands today ambiguous, at the point of the Afro-Arab cultural inter-change. The Sahara was a supposed melting point. In point of fact it is a low-intensity war zone. Adwok Nyaba tells us that Arab enslavement of Africans was ‘either ignored, minimised or completely rejected on false account that the Arabs either were ‘brothers in Islam’, equally colonised and oppressed by the West, or participated in the decolonisation struggles of the African people’. The longest wars in Africa, which have been ongoing since the arrival of the Arabs, in Sudan, was not discussed in the OAU, as the Arabs considered them ‘own affairs’, only for discussion in the Arab League. There was an unspoken understanding amongst African states to remain silent on issues such as Sudan and Arab slavery.

K.K.Prah in his research work on culture, language and history, in February 1991 stated :

there is a need to distinguish between citizenship and nationality –citizens of a state can be of various nationalities. While citizenship requires the acknowledgement of equal rights for all nationalities within the state, nationality per se transcends citizenship and transcends often-state borders, especially in the African case.

Blyden, Garvey, and Du Bois mentioned the African Nation (Prah 2006: 223 ). The lessons of history teach us that the African Nation is constituted by Africa south of the Sahara and the African Diasporas. This is to be organically realised as incorporating both the Western and Eastern Diasporas of Africa. Africans in the zones of Arab influence, both in Africa and Arabia, were Arabised and deliberately de-nationalised, as was the case in Darfur in Sudan.

According to Bulcha, Africans in the Middle East and Asia remain ‘a disjointed Diaspora’, although he goes on to clarify that records indicate that our people in those places show a persistent desire to repatriate. Their African identity/personality was never in doubt.

In the East, there are, according to the United Nations ‘Africans and Afro-descendants communities in Asia’. The Afro-descendants are those Diop described as having ‘a common soul’. These are the descendants of the first wave out of Africa, such as the Aborigines of Australia, the Papuans and the Agta/Sakai of Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and the Philippines  ( Rashidi.1995: 331 ). Rashidi made a presentation at the University of Juba on the 24th May 2007 entitled “The global African presence’.  For example, the Pacific Islanders today hold dearly their African Nationality, as do the Papuans.

The issue of the mergers of the Diasporas and Africa needs to be addressed squarely. In the AU context this issue was decided at the meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17th - 20th April 2000 of the Legal Experts and Parliamentarians on the Establishment of the African Union and the Pan-African Parliament (ref CAB/leg/23.15/6/Vol IV), when, due to Arab influence, African descendants were excluded from the affairs of the Parliament. The Arabs have consistently opposed the linkage of Africa to its Diaspora. Indeed it is something they see as a doom signal. Yet they had formed their Arab League in 1945, some forty years before the OAU, from which Africa south of the Sahara was excluded. The linkage of Africa to its Diaspora is central to the Pan-African project. The Diaspora today has Observer Status at the Economic and Social Council of the AU (ECOSOCC).

Here it should be clear, the problem is not one of religious intolerance and anti-Muslim sentiment, but the issue is the deliberate racist policy of denationalising and Arabising Africans, in order to take their lands, as seen in Darfur today.

Ackah’s (1999) thematic description of the Pan-African nationalist thought and practice shows that the meaning and content of the concept was shaped mostly by historical events that confronted the people of African origin and the Diaspora. This means the fight against European imperialism and racism, and Arab expansion and racism were and remain the propelling forces in the development of the Pan-African movement.

Due to its complexity as a thought that emerged as an emotional, political and intellectual response of the African to European and Arab colonisation of Africa and the racism that accompanied it, Pan-African nationalism is/can be defined in both a narrower and broader sense. In the narrower sense the definition of the ideology is limited to a political movement for the unification of the African continent, and the broader definition includes the cultural and intellectual movements of all Africans all over the world. (i.e., the global African presence ).

Pan-African nationalist thought in the narrower sense can be specifically identified with both the First Pan-African Conference in 1900 and two distinct conferences, which were held both in Accra in 1958 (Thompson 1969: 24; Pheko 1999: 10). The First Pan-African Conference initiated the organised promotion of the concept. The latter were distinct in that they were the first conferences to be held on African soil and as such signified the Pan-Africanist movement’s second phase in its historical and intellectual development. The Accra Conferences initiated the Continentalist phase of the movement led by Nkrumah. It sought the unity of the Continent as the primary objective. The OAU excluded the Diaspora from its work.

The First Pan-African Conference of 1900 and its significance in the ideological development of Pan-African nationalist thought and practice

The First Pan-African Conference in London, from the 23 to 25 July 1900, was the first ever held to propagate these ideas, and it was attended by a small group of African men and women from the New World. The idea of such a meeting was the brainchild of Henry Sylvester-Williams, who was a West Indian barrister. ‘This conference was the beginning of a structural, ideological concept of Pan-Africanism’ (Clarke 191: 105).

The Roles that W.E.B Du Bois and M.M. Garvey played in shaping Pan-African Thought and Practice after 1900

In the list of names of African-American intellectuals who attended the First Pan-African Conference in London in 1900 was that of Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963). Earlier on, in 1897, he is reported to have made a statement to the effect that, ‘if the Negro were to be a factor in the world’s history it would be through a Pan-African movement’ (Legum 1962: 24). Considering this pronouncement it would be right to conclude that for Du Bois the First Pan-African Conference was a dream come true and a step-forward by people of African origin and descent in their struggle against Western colonialism and racism. Like a prophet of old, at the first Pan-African Conference he declared that:

The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colour line – the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea (Legum 1962: 25)

The Afro-Jamaican Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887-1940) in his objectives and programme of action is reported to have:

sought to unite all Africans the world over, to establish a bridgehead on the continent of Africa from which to fight colonialism and weld the whole of Africa into a united nation (Thompson 1969: 42).

Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was the first Pan African mass organisation, which established branches wherever Africans were to be found, dispersed around the world, including Africa. In the early 1920s, it introduced African nationalism for the first time as a uniting factor in Southern African politics. It serves no useful purpose within the unity movement to make comparisons between Du Bois and Garvey. Both dedicated their lives to the struggle of the African people as a whole.

The Du Boisan Congresses between 1919 and 1927

Following the First Pan-African Conference in 1900, between 1919 and 1927, Du Bois organised four Pan-African Congresses that became known as the Du Boisan Congresses, and as such marked the first phase of Pan-Africanism. The Congresses were:

i.   The First Pan-African Congress: Paris (1919);

ii.  The Second Pan-African Congress: London, Brussels and Paris (1921);

iii. The Third Pan-African Congress: London and Lisbon (1923); and

iv. The Fourth Pan-African Congress: New York (1927).

Thompson (1969: 55) indicates that, the first and the second Congresses showed promise for ‘the growth of the Pan-African idea’, but the last two are reported to have been ‘…disappointing and revealed a diminution of its forces’.

The Fifth Pan-African Congress and the role of George Padmore

After several attempts by the ‘Father of Pan-Africanism’, Du Bois and other leaders such as Dr Harold Moody, the Jamaican leader of the League of Coloured People that was described as the conservative component of Pan-Africanism, the Fifth Pan-African Congress assembled from the 15 – 19 October 1945 at the Charlton Town Hall, Manchester, and was attended by over two hundred delegates from all over the ‘coloured world’ (Thompson 1969: 58).

It needs to be noted here that the meeting of the Fifth Pan-African Congress was in the main made possible by the collaboration of the Pan-African Federation (PAF), which was a federation of several groups that had emerged between 1927 and 1944, and George Padmore’s International African Service Bureau (IASB). The leadership of Padmore was outstanding. This was the last Pan-African Congress held outside of Africa.

A new breed of African nationalists who attended the Congress made it their business to clarify issues. ‘They rejected assimilation, demanded independence outright, and tried to organize mass movements to secure these ends’ (Gann and Duignan 1967: 97). As a result, the aspirations of Africans were clearly articulated in Kwame Nkrumah’s Declaration to the Colonial Workers, Farmers and Intellectuals, where he opted for non-violent struggle such as strikes and boycotts.

The transplantation of the Pan-Africanist movement to Africa

After the Manchester Pan-African Congress of 1945 with its powerful resolutions that were intended to totally uproot European colonialism and its racist practices, Pan-African nationalism remained in the realm of ideas (Thompson 1969: 126). It was only thirteen years later that the Pan-African political movement landed in Africa in 1958 after Ghana’s independence. The event of the independence of Ghana was of historical significance in that it:

removed one of the disabilities under which the [Pan-African] movement had                operated in the first phase, namely, the absence of a base from which propaganda  and ideas could be disseminated (Thompson 1969: 126).

The idea of the African personality became one of the main pillars in the process of the revitalization of African cultural values that were eroded by European cultural domination. The first two Pan-African conferences to be held on the African soil were held in Accra, Ghana in April and December 1958 (Thompson 1969: 126). Eight African governments that were independent at that time, namely, Ethiopia, Liberia, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan and Ghana, attended the April conference. These governments on behalf of Africa as a whole issued a joint declaration condemning colonialism and the apartheid system in South Africa. In December of the same year, 1958, the first All-African Peoples’ Conference was held. It purposefully linked itself with the Pan-African tradition. ‘The wider implications of the first two Accra Conferences of 1958 ushered Pan-Africanism into the realm of realpolitik’ (Thompson 1969: 126), leading to the formation of the OAU/AU  in May 1963, inspired by Nkrumah, with their annual/bi-annual meetings, thus institutionalising Pan-Africanism.

The Sixth Pan African Congress, Dar Es Salaam, June 1974

52 delegations representing Independent States in Africa and the Caribbean, Liberation Movements and communities of people of African descent in North America, South America, Britain and the Pacific met at the University of Dar Es Salaam’s Nkrumah Hall to open the 6th Pan African Congress (PAC).

The 6th PAC represented the first in the series convened in Africa, in a self-governing African state. The Congress nevertheless, made a big impact on the Liberation Movements of the African countries still under colonial domination, especially the former Portuguese colonies of Mozambique, Angola, and Guinea-Bissau and settler colonialism in the then Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa. Shortly after the Dar Es Salaam meeting, the bulk of these countries rid themselves of colonialism.

There were sessions on economics, national liberation, culture and education and science and technology. The most remarkable event was the paper of Walter Rodney. The lucidity of analysis, especially on the hostility to Pan Africanism (i.e., the surrender of their sovereignty ) by the Governments of the independent African States, provided an understanding, which is as valid today as it was in 1974. Rodney asked, which class leads the national liberation movement; how capable is this class of carrying out the historical tasks of national liberation and; which are the silent classes on whose behalf national claims are being articulated? 

Rodney saw Pan Africanism as internationalist and a brand of nationalism. Those who came to lead the self-governing states were incapable of transcending the inherited territorial boundaries. Indeed the African petty bourgeoisie leadership since independence had been a further obstruction to African decolonization. Finally Rodney asserts that the neutrality and unity of nationalism is illusory and that in practice particular classes of strata capture nationalist movements and chart their ideological and political directions.

The Seventh Pan African Congress, Kampala, April 1994

The 7th Pan African Congress was the second to be held on the African continent in the one hundred years of history of the PAC. At this Congress President Y. Museveni of Uganda was the Patron, Col. K. Otafiire the Convener and Dr. T. Abdul-Raheem the Secretary General. Congress set up a Post-Congress Secretariat under the leadership of the Secretary-General, which continued to function in Kampala into the late 1990s. The late A.M. Babu will be remembered for the active role he played in the convening of the Congress.

The theme of the Congress was ‘Facing the Future in Unity, social progress and democracy – perspectives towards the 21st century’. Seventeen African Governments were represented either by their diplomats accredited to Uganda or by official ministerial delegations. More than thirty African countries were represented by different political forces and groups, especially opposition, pro-democracy, youth and women activists.

Pan-African nationalism in it’s Broader Sense

The 7th PAC closed with a re-invigorated Pan African movement. So much so that the dynamism coming from the 7th PAC impacted at high level leading to the re-structuring of the OAU into the African Union (AU) under the influence of the Libyan leader Momar Gaddafi. Yet the AU and the promotion of the African Renaissance concept by President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, despite their apparent promise, in the final analysis failed to meet one of the cardinal principles of the Pan African movement, the integration of the Diasporas and the Continent. In the Borderlands the AU was paralysed, being unable to go to the root of the Darfur issue and advance solutions, merely separating the belligerents.

In the period post 1994 events in the Borderlands such as the status of the Sahara, claimed by Morocco, have increasingly received focus, demanding attention. Mauritania is a case in point, deriving its name from the Moors, otherwise known as Arabs. In 1991 the Economist Intelligence Unit estimated the population as fewer than two million, of which sixty per cent were black Africans. Africans originally occupied the area. Arabs arrived from 570AD driven by drought in Arabia. They had been preceded by Berbers.

Whereas the Arabs originally lived in the north of Mauritania as nomads, with African pastoralists living in the south, drought in the north lead to the Arabs moving south, assisted by a racist Arabist Government in the capital Nouakchott, pushing the Africans off their lands, as happened in Darfur.

There are at least half a million Black slaves in Mauritania, a practice dating back to the 8th century. John Mercer in his Introductory Remarks in the Anti-Slavery Society Report of 1982 states that Nkrumah’s friend, Muktar Ould Dada, Head of State of Mauritania from 1960 to 1978, kept slaves behind the Presidential Palace. Groups such as the African Liberation Forces of Mauritania (FLAM) created in 1983 by Black Mauritanians, took up arms against the government, opposing Arab racism.

Garang De Mabior and the impact of Pan-African nationalism in the Eastern Diaspora

At the 7th Pan-African Congress held in April 1994, in Kampala, Uganda was Dr John Garang De Mabior, representing the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLA/M). Garang’s speech delivered in Windhoek, Namibia in May 2005 at the 17th All Africa Students’ Conference (AASC) replicated that delivered by him in Kampala at the 7th  PAC. In Kampala Garang said:

Africa must unite not as a continent, but as a Nation, and therein lies our collective survival as a people.

In Sudan people such as the Borgo, Berti and Maali were forced to denationalise and become Arabs. In 1960 these groups were used to fight Southern Sudanese with great ferocity. The African Darfurians were pitched against the Southerners. Later the Khartoum government armed an Arab nomad militia from Tchad and Libya, against the Africans in Darfur. It was at this point the African Darfurians realised they were the subjects of Arab racism, that Islam would not save them and that they were indeed Africans. This process of conscientisation requires further study. It was consequent on the sacrifices of the South, which in point if fact, forced Khartoum, by armed struggle, to the negotiating table.

Garang went on to say in his Address to the 7th Pan-African Congress:

This Congress must consolidate the solidarity, or rather the oneness of the Africans on the Continent and those in the Diaspora. This Congress must call upon Africans in North and South America to play an effective role in the African Renaissance and in building the African Nation….

In the article ‘Iraq in Black’ by Theola Labbe, published in Crisis Magazine March/April 2004, it is stated that the number of Black people in Iraq is unknown. Many African slaves were imported when Iraq was the capital of the Islamic world. Many descendants of these live in Basra today. They are the subjects of racism and discrimination. Some trace their origins to places in Africa such as Kenya and Nubia in Sudan. Traditions are kept, such as healing and spiritual rituals. A statistic to be kept in mind is that there are over one million Black Saudis in Saudi Arabia. That country officially abolished slavery in 1962.

The campaign for reparations, for example, for Arab–led slavery, is at the stage of ‘fence- setting’. That is the creation of a powerful moral position supporting reparations. The World Conference Against Racism and its NGO Forum, both of 2001, showed the way forward for positive action on such diverse issues as slavery and colonialism (Para 99 Conference Declaration) and provides remedies such as reparations. The NGO Forum pronounced on Slavery in Mauritania, Sudan, Cameroon and Niger (Para 99, 236 and 237), colonialism (Para 44 and 95), as well as on Africans and African Descendants  (Para 231), providing for reparations. (Paras 238-247).


The reason the Pan-African movement lost momentum once ‘independence’ was achieved was the assassination/deposing of able leaders and the over preoccupation with the nation state, which drew its inspiration from the Berlin Conference of 1884-5. The same national entity that Walter Rodney in his paper for the Sixth Pan-African Congress identified as the major impediment to African unity. Another cause was the weak sense of national unity amongst us. Here reference is not to the states, created by ‘independence’, but the supra body, the African Nation. Finally Africa’s inability to fuse, on the basis of strict equality, its AU and Secretariat, with its Diasporas was a major failing.

December 2007,Juba, South Sudan  


Ackah, WB 1999. Pan-Africanism: Exploring the Contradictions. Sydney: Ashgate Publishing Company.

Bankie, BF & K. Mchumbu (eds) 2006 Pan-Africanism: strengthening the unity of Africa and its Diaspora. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan Publishers.

Bulcha, M 2005, "The Red Sea Slave Trade." In KK Prah (ed): Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans. Cape Town, The Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society (CASAS) Book Series.

Bulcha, Mekuria 2002. The Making of the Oromo Diaspora. Kirk House Publishers.

Cabral, A 1973. Return to the Source, Selected Speeches by Amilcar Cabral. London: Monthly Review Press.

Clarke, John Henrik 1991. New Dimensions in African History. New Jersey: Africa World Press.

Casely-Hayford, EBJ 1911. Ethiopia Unbound: A Study in Race Emancipation. London: GM Phillips.

Diop, CA 1992. "Origin of the Ancient Egyptians." In Ivan Sertima (ed): Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop, Volume I, New Jersey, Transaction Publishers.

Du Bois, WE 1940. Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Du Bois, WE 1963. An ABC of Color: Selections from over a Half-Century of the Writings of W.E.B. Du Bois. Berlin: Stocken.

Du Bois, WE 1964. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. New York: Longmans, Green and Company Ltd.

Esedebe, PO  1994. Pan-Africanism. The idea and Movement, 1776 – 1991. Washington DC: Howard University Press.

Ga’le, SFBT 2002. Shaping a free Southern Sudan. Loa, South Sudan : Loa Catholic Mission Council.   

Gann, LH & P Duignan 1967. Shaping a free Southern Sudan – An Appraisal of Western Colonialism in Africa, South of Sahara. London: Pall Mall Press.

Geiss, I 1974. The Pan-African Movement. London: Methuen & Co Ltd.

Legum, C 1962. Pan-Africanism: A Short Political Guide. London: Pall Mall Press Ltd.

Newsletter of the African Association of Political Science, 2001, Report of the Meeting of Legal Experts and Parliamentarians on the establishment of the African Union and the Pan-African Parliament. Harare, AAPS Vol 6, No1.

Nyaba, A 2005. "Righting the past wrongs against the African People." In KK Prah (ed) Reflections on Arab-led slavery of Africans, Cape Town, CASAS Book Series

Padmore, George 1956. Pan-Africanism or Communism. London: Dennis Dobson.

Pheko, M 1998. Land is Money and Power. New York: Pheko & Associates.

Prah, KK 1997. Beyond the Colour Line – Pan-Africanist Disputations. Florida-Hills, RSA: Vivlia.

Prah, Kwesi Kwaa 2006. The African Nation. Cape Town: CASAS Book Series.

Rashidi, Runoko 1995. Black presence in classical Southeast Asian Civilisation. In R.Rashidi and I Sertima (eds): African Presence in Early Asia, New Jersey, Transaction Publishers.

Segal, R 2001. Islam’s Black Slaves: The other Diaspora. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Thompson, VB 1969. Africa and Unity : The Evolution of Pan-Africanism. London: Longmans, Gree and Company Ltd.

Sharawy, H 2001. Arab culture and African culture: ambiguous relations (Mimeo), Cairo: Arab Research Centre.

WCAR War Monitors Group Secretariat, 2003. Situation of African and Afro- Descendant communities in Asia. Geneva.

posted 21 December 2007 

*   *   *   *   *

A Critical Biography


Julius E. Thompson and James L. Conyers, Jr. Pan-African Nationalism in the Americas


 The Life And Times Of John Henrik Clarke / John Henrik Clarke—A Great and Mighty Walk 


YouTube Lectures

Dr. John Henrik Clarke—Christopher Columbus 1 of 7  / John Henrik Clarke talks about Farrakhan


Dr. John Henrik Clarke on organized religion vs spirituality / Part 2 / Part 3 / Part 4


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#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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Sonata Mulattica: Poems

By Rita Dove

This 12th collection from the former U.S. poet laureate and Pulitzer Prize recipient is her third book-length narrative poem: it follows the real career of the violin prodigy George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower (1780–1860), a former pupil of Haydn, as well as the grandson/ of an African prince, or so his promoters and teachers in England said. Moving to Vienna during the Napoleonic Wars, the violinist met and befriended the famously moody Beethoven, who was prepared to dedicate his famously difficult Kreutzer Sonata to Bridgetower until a rivalry for the same woman drove them apart. Dove tells Bridgetower's story, and some of Beethoven's and Haydn's, in a heterogenous profusion of short poems, some almost prosy, some glittering in their technique. In quatrains, a double villanelle, what looks like found text, short lines splayed all over a page and attractive description, Dove renders Bridgetower's frustrated genius: Music played for the soul is sheer pleasure;/ to play merely for pleasure is nothing/ but work. Dove does not always achieve such subtleties—those who loved her early work may think this book too long: few, though, will doubt the seriousness of her effort, her interest at once in the history of classical music and the changing meanings of race.—Publishers Weekly

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The Persistence of the Color Line

Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency

By Randall Kennedy

Among the best things about The Persistence of the Color Line is watching Mr. Kennedy hash through the positions about Mr. Obama staked out by black commentators on the left and right, from Stanley Crouch and Cornel West to Juan Williams and Tavis Smiley. He can be pointed. Noting the way Mr. Smiley consistently “voiced skepticism regarding whether blacks should back Obama” . . .

The finest chapter in The Persistence of the Color Line is so resonant, and so personal, it could nearly be the basis for a book of its own. That chapter is titled “Reverend Wright and My Father: Reflections on Blacks and Patriotism.”  Recalling some of the criticisms of America’s past made by Mr. Obama’s former pastor, Mr. Kennedy writes with feeling about his own father, who put each of his three of his children through Princeton but who “never forgave American society for its racist mistreatment of him and those whom he most loved.” 

His father distrusted the police, who had frequently called him “boy,” and rejected patriotism. Mr. Kennedy’s father “relished Muhammad Ali’s quip that the Vietcong had never called him ‘nigger.’ ” The author places his father, and Mr. Wright, in sympathetic historical light.

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Salvage the Bones

A Novel by Jesmyn Ward

On one level, Salvage the Bones is a simple story about a poor black family that’s about to be trashed by one of the most deadly hurricanes in U.S. history. What makes the novel so powerful, though, is the way Ward winds private passions with that menace gathering force out in the Gulf of Mexico. Without a hint of pretension, in the simple lives of these poor people living among chickens and abandoned cars, she evokes the tenacious love and desperation of classical tragedy. The force that pushes back against Katrina’s inexorable winds is the voice of Ward’s narrator, a 14-year-old girl named Esch, the only daughter among four siblings. Precocious, passionate and sensitive, she speaks almost entirely in phrases soaked in her family’s raw land. Everything here is gritty, loamy and alive, as though the very soil were animated. Her brother’s “blood smells like wet hot earth after summer rain. . . . His scalp looks like fresh turned dirt.” Her father’s hands “are like gravel,” while her own hand “slides through his grip like a wet fish,” and a handsome boy’s “muscles jabbered like chickens.” Admittedly, Ward can push so hard on this simile-obsessed style that her paragraphs risk sounding like a compost heap, but this isn’t usually just metaphor for metaphor’s sake.

She conveys something fundamental about Esch’s fluid state of mind: her figurative sense of the world in which all things correspond and connect. She and her brothers live in a ramshackle house steeped in grief since their mother died giving birth to her last child. . . . What remains, what’s salvaged, is something indomitable in these tough siblings, the strength of their love, the permanence of their devotion.—WashingtonPost


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The Penguin Anthology of 20th Century American Poetry

By Rita Dove

Selecting poets and poems to represent a century of poetry, especially the riotous twentieth century in America, is a massive undertaking fraught with peril and complication. Poet Rita Dove-a Pulitzer Prize- winning former U.S. poet laureate, professor, and presidential scholar- embarked on what became a consuming four-year odyssey. She reports on obstacles and discoveries in an exacting and forthright introduction, featuring striking quotes, vivid profiles, and a panoramic view of the evolution of poetic visions and styles that helped bring about social as well as artistic change [...] Dove's incisive perception of the role of poetry in cultural and social awakenings infuses this zestful and rigorous gathering of poems both necessary and unexpected by 180 American poets. This landmark anthology will instantly enhance and invigorate every poetry shelf or section.—Booklist

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 28 March 2012




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