Language & Immigration Hysteria
Conversation with Friends: Kam,
Wilson, Ben, Linda, Latorial, Miriam,
If I am not for myself, who will be for me?
If I am not for others, what am I? And if
not now, when?
Jewish scholar & theologian (30 BC - 9 AD)
The No Latino Left Behind Act
Last One Out of Mexico Turn-Off the
By Lloyd Williams
Make no mistake about it, the President’s proposed
“Guest Worker” plan of amnesty for illegal immigrants is
not designed with the best interests of either
undocumented aliens or bona fide United States citizens
in mind. If Bush is behind it, you can be sure that the
bill has more to do with ensuring an uninterrupted
supply of cheap labor to big business than with securing
All you have to do is remember how he granted
Halliburton and other mega-corporations billion-dollar
no-bid contracts to rebuild Iraq and New Orleans to
figure out what’s going on here. And he has the nerve to
call those of us questioning his motives as racist. In
this regard, he’s resorting to the age-old ploy of
divide-and-conquer, trying to pit the decimated unions
and other suffering, underemployed segments of society
against this marginalized sector of unfortunates made up
mostly of Latinos.
The Bush scheme relies on the specious argument that
illegals are only taking jobs that nobody else wants,
conveniently ignoring the fact that the only reason
nobody wants those jobs is because they pay so little.
But they pay so little simply because employers are able
to make an end run around existing state and federal
regulations by hiring folks too afraid of deportation to
assert any expectations of enjoying a living wage,
medical benefits and contributions to Social Security.
As a consequence of this dire, domestic economic
development, along with the unfortunate outsourcing of
so many factory and skilled positions overseas, the rich
are getting richer, the poor, poorer, and the American
middle class continues to evaporate. The solution to the
problem, however, does not lie in pitting blacks and
others stuck at the bottom against the newcomers, and
it’s just as silly to speak of jailing illegals or of
sending them back to their respective homelands when so
many Latinos are already deeply entrenched in thousands
of communities on this side of the Rio Grande .
Politicians ought to think twice before passing an ex
post facto (i.e., after the fact) law declaring over
8,000,000 aliens already living here anything but
full-fledged citizens, especially when every child born
in the U.S., (even to a foreigner) automatically
qualifies for that coveted status. Any judge will tell
you that it makes no sense to place an unenforceable
statute on the books, because that only exposes the
legal system as a powerless paper tiger.
Plus, if America is too damn broke to build a fence
or lay land mines along the Mexican border, there’s no
way we could find the cash for the legal expense of
millions of individual deportation hearings. Therefore,
like it or not, 99% of the illegal aliens are not going
anywhere, so the focus ought to be on how to incorporate
them into this culture as equals, not on how to demonize
and criminalize them.
They deserve to be educated and uplifted, not
marginalized and exploited, lest their degradation serve
to encourage further erosion of all our rights and
benefits in the face of an avaricious corporate
onslaught which by design is indifferent to the
fundamental human concern for the quality, sanctity and
appreciation of life.
Lloyd Williams is an attorney and a
member of the bar in NJ, NY, CT, PA, MA & US Supreme
* * *
Other Comments on
Rudy: Our present immigration policy in some
sense serves us all—in lowering the cost of goods and
services and thus taxes. And, as with most things
economic, there are those who receive more benefits from
these policies than others, much more so than common
workers like you and me. I am not sure how it balances
out for illegal aliens (Hispanics) and American
citizens. I was told by the white fellow who put up my
satellite dish that a study was done in Texas of the
amount that illegal aliens contributed to the Texas
economy and how much tax payers contributed to their
being in Texas. The satellite technician, a person that
listens to Rush Limbaugh and conservative radio, said
that the figures did not add up in favor of the
Hispanics. That is, they were a social burden. And he
was pissed off that they are talking about "rights."
I have never trusted statistics. They
are so easily manipulated to say what the researcher
wants them to say, to sustain whatever political
perspective is your slice of cake. My fear is that too
much of public opinion is riding on prejudice more than
anything else. We have always had a hatred of negroes
and Indians. The "Remember the Alamo"
war cry marks a historic
hatred of Mexicans. That film continues to play over and
over without criticism. That is, the black and white of
our American story is still vibrant.
Personally, I am not troubled by the presence of
Hispanics in this country. It is not a major issue for
me. I should learn Spanish but like most Americans I
have little facility with languages outside of American
English. Yet I say all we Americanos should become one people,
not merely in trade relations.
What is a major issue for me is how
legislators manipulate the laws to serve a few and
limited interests. For instance, everyone has concluded
that Hispanics do a better job on Virginia highways,
keeping them clean and the grass and bushes cut, than
has ever been done. It is commonly known that such
workers are often paid below the minimum wage and
without any benefits without any legal protections if
hurt or injured. We do not reward excellence when it
comes from the bottom.
We know that legislatures all over
the country do subcontracting to the lowest bidder—to
avoid hiring workers for the state directly to avoid
benefits and other demands of American workers, like
minimum wage and health coverage. Our enemies are thus
American politicians rather than the poor peasants who
cross the border to sustain their families. So for me
all this business about Hispanics and illegal aliens is
so much racist scapegoating.
My larger difficulty is that Negroes
and Negroes that should know better from their own
history are fueling this racist hysteria. But how could
it be otherwise—they are American; and everybody knows
that race baiting has been America's favorite pastime
for centuries. They do it better than any people on
God's good earth and the more educated the better they
practice the art. Can we turn the corner on such a
nightmare? I doubt it is in our near future. There has
always been money for niggerizing the vulnerable, of spitting down on
Have not nationalism and national borders exhausted
their usefulness? Are we not yet tired of all these
national and racial arguments? Can we really learn from
centuries of historical errors? Or are we doomed to
repeat all of the race and class prejudices that have
undermined creating an American civilization worthy of
note and emulation? From my view stupidity usually wins
out when it is supported by dollars.
I envy your new state of
mind. The change seems to be agreeing with you. Your
observations on immigration are keen, witty, and
A world without national
boundaries and without borders? Well, many of the
borders exist only in the mind. Witness the old
testament, when Abraham traveled around the Middle East
without a passport, pimping his sister to at least two
kings. The presence or absence of borders (or walls)
made little difference to Joshua. The more things
change; the more they remain the same.
Here in Paris, I think people
of Blackafrican blood seem to fall into
three categories. The Europeanized people, like myself
who have assimilated bourgeois international culture.
People who still have distinctive African cultural
traits and often wear Islamic or other "native
costumes." People who are assimilated into the hip-hop
culture, like last autumn's rioters.
I have met an Egyptian, who is
darker than myself, but has "good hair," so most people
would think he was a Pakistani. But many Pakistanis are
much more European in appearance than he is. Some of
the Brazillians look more like Vietnamese, because they
have some Japanese ancestry which gives their features
an "Asiatic" cast. We already are a "world without
borders" in the biogenetic sense. Always have been.
Linda: Rudolph, I don't see
this as a racist issue because the ethnic group in focus
is Hispanics/Latinos. I do know that large contracts are
making it possible for this group to be gainfully
employed in institutions such as Howard (albeit in
menial positions) with no requirement to speak English.
How can you operate in an American work setting without
being able to speak English.
Staff has to make signs to
communicate thoughts and ideas to them. Depending on the
setting, this is not only a hindrance to productivity
but it can be unsafe or dangerous in certain situations,
i.e science labs, hospital settings, etc. I guarantee
you,if I landed a job in France I'd damn well better be
able to speak French.
I have been writing my congressmen for over 20 years
about the inconsistent and biased U.S. immigration laws
(starting with Cong. Parren Mitchell). You must know
that these laws are skewed when it comes to the hue of
one's skin or the level of education the foreigner has.
THAT IS ISSUE #1 for me. All of the goodwill being
suggested now on granting citizenship to illegal aliens
(by the way they broke the law) MUST be extended to
Africans, Haitians and other melanin-bearing folks.
ISSUE #2 for me is that employers who have been
knowingly hiring and benefiting from these illegal
workers are also lawbreakers. They should be charged
with breaking the law.
Did you notice the massive amount of news coverage given
to the Latino marches as compared to the dearth of news
coverage on the many, many antiwar marches and protests
during Bush's tenure? Did it occur to you that a few
years ago the anti-monopoly law was changed to allow a
only a few individuals to own several media outlets?
Americans are now among the least informed people in the
Did it occur to you that the business owners allowed
their illegal workers the day off to make the case for
legalizing these low wage earners? Ha! For me, it is
not about being against one race or another. For me it
is about being consistent in your laws and enforcing the
law as it exists. GET OFF THE RACIST SING SONG, RUDY.
YOU'RE PREACHING TO THE CHOIR.
My solution to this mess is 1. Bring charges and jail
time for employers who are breaking the law (I have 2
friends who are illegal aliens working for peanuts and
their employers work them like animals.)
2. So let's be generous and let them become citizens.
But charge them $5,000 each to help defray tax payer
moneys which they have benefitted from. Until the
government pays African Americans reparations for our
free labor, I'm not necessarily in a generous, giving
Whatever the heck the Republicans push through for the
Latinos, make it across the board for Africans,
Haitians, and other Caribes.
Rudy: Linda, when I was
in Baltimore, there was a Korean store around the
corner. The lady learned English on the job, at least,
enough to sell the goods in her store. There was no
language requirement for her to enter the country and
work and make a living. I am willing to bet that in much
of American history (19th century onward) there was no
language requirement for immigrants (Italians &
Sicilians, East and North Europeans). To make such a
demand now in the 21st century indeed smacks of racism.
And if language was indeed such a problem the Mexicans
would not be as valuable as they are as employees. So
the language thing is such a red herring.
If you want to say that
American whites deal with Haitians and Africans
differently than they do Hispanics, you have no argument
with me. Colorism is nothing new in America. It has
always been a companion of racism. But that seems
besides the point and to be altogether another issue.
That is not the fault of the Hispanics but a fault of we
Americans (black and white). Many of these so-called
Hispanics have both an African and a Native American
background and were in the Americas before we blacks and
whites even reached these shores.
There indeed seems to be a
racial angst among American Negroes against Hispanics.
It seemed couched in your comments: "Did you notice the
massive amount of news coverage given to the
Latino marches as compared to the dearth of
news coverage on the many, many antiwar marches and
protests during Bush's tenure?" The event was indeed
newsworthy and deserved the attention it received. If
you want blacks to receive such coverage then all you
have to do is something that is deserving of such
attention. As they say don't hate the player hate the
For the Hispanics in America,
much like the Asians, were viewed as much more passive
than blacks. So it was indeed extraordinary that they
decided to stand up and flex their political muscle. I
am glad for them and I think we should applaud them for
their courage, which is so much lacking among the black
middle-classes today, though they find it very easy to
rail against the Hispanics in the same tones and
rhetoric as the most conservative and racist of
Unlike you I am not into
punishing the Hispanics for attempting to feed their
families. I am more into punishing the politicians and
corporations who have most benefited from opening the
borders to this mass migration of population south to
north. Not that I am against this migration, for I am
not; the problem is that it has caused so much
disruption in our national life that it has been hurtful
in resolving the devastating crises in our urban centers
and it has created a much more broader culture of
exploiting those who are least able to fight back.
As I said before I am against
all forms of jingoism and nationalism. The Hispanics are
our brothers and sisters and I think that we should
extend them as much love as we would our own blood. I am
quite disappointed when I hear these black criticisms
deriding Hispanics for trying to make a better life for
their families. It is not just you in fault here, I have
such people in my family
(my cousin and my aunt)
and I rail against their attitudes this past Wednesday
as I rode in a car to Baltimore . My cousin on seeing a
bus load of Hispanics he too raised the question of his
40 acres and a mule only moments after boasting about
the money he will have at retirement from his job and
the military. So it is indeed not I but too many negroes
who are tossing racist sentiments against another people
struggling to be treated decently as fellow human
It seems to me that your angst
should not be directed at the Hispanics but rather at
Howard administrators who made a decision to subcontract
rather than hire employees directly and pay them a
decent salary and benefits. I suspect these black
administrators would argue that their exploitation of
Hispanics helps to provide you your salary and benefits.
But I suspect you and other Howard employees will not be
writing letters to your bosses or picketing outside the
administration building demanding an account of Howard
U's employment practices. But of course it is not just
Howard but black institutions throughout Maryland and
Virginia are into the same deceitful bottom line
It is always easy to kick the
dog that doesn't have teeth.
Instead of speaking about dead issues like reparations,
why not speak of and push for raising minimum wages
(locally and federally), guaranteed universal health
care, the elimination of government subcontracting.
These kinds of policies would eliminate at least illegal
aliens working for state and federal governments
Rudy, even if I disagreed with you I would be forced to
accept your logic and the moral propositions that you
draw from it.
agree with you Rudy. I stand with Immigrants. To be
honest, I think that every immigrant who is already here
and has been working here should be allowed to stay
here. If we must create laws, let's create laws for the
future, not laws that will hurt people who have already
come to America. I say let's make a place for those
who are already here.
I'm teaching in Chicago, and
all of my students are immigrants from somewhere:
Mexico, Peru, Poland, Syria, India and even Belize. You
name the country, it's represented at Oakton Community
College. But I was most stunned by my students
responses to the immigration issues that we are facing.
Mostly all of these students feel that they and their
families struggled to get here legally, and they think
that it's unfair for illegal immigrants to be allowed to
stay here. Besides, they have their own family members
back in their homelands who they would love to have come
and join them here in the US, but that is not possible.
Here I am, a Black woman in
America, siding with the immigrants feeling their pain
and need to come to America for stability, work, to
provide for their children and escape poverty. I guess
I'm likening the immigrants to the cause of Blacks in
America and Haitians needing to escape to a better
I teach online, and I
surprisingly found that one of my Mexican students who
lives in a border town is also immigration. Her
reasoning was for the schools' sake in her area. She
shared that their schools received a certain amount of
funding from the government to provide for the students
legally registered there. But immigrants are crossing
the border and enrolling their kids in the schools which
is causing crowding, lack of resources, etc. But they
need the Mexican immigrants because if they press for
their removal, their businesses suffer. For these same
immigrant families are crossing the border to shop. So,
here's a Mexican woman against illegal Mexican
immigrants in her border town, but her underlying
reasoning goes right back to government funding.
America knows that this is a
border town being weighed down by illegal immigrants.
Rather than let our children suffer, why not just pour
more money into the school, even if it does spill over
and help illegal immigrants? I know that just goes back
to the issue of tax paying Americans not wanting to
support illegal aliens. So we're back where we started.
I was shocked to find that the
opinions of immigrants who are legal here are so much
against who I thought would be there "comrades" or
fellow immigrants. This issue is multilayered. Here in
Chicago in the Highland Park area most of the laborers
are Mexican. It has been interesting for me to see, and
it's been hard for me not to make an analysis or a
comparison between the immigrants I see here and African
I believe that the answers to
these issues lie in real government with a passion for
helping people. I disagree with work permits that would
allow America to take advantage of people and use them
only to send them back in a few years. I think there's
a better solution. Again, I say let everyone who is
here stay here, and create and carry out more
progressive, positive and equal laws for immigration in
We have so many things that
need fixing in America. It's a wonder we can get
anything done at all. How does a country broken in so
many places stay on the shelf?
Buenos Dias and CONGRATULATIONS. Rudy for SPEAKING THE
TRUTH. "Kicking the dog without any teeth." The
American rich benefits from hiring undocumented workers.
I was just in
México for 6 months and it pained me to walk through the
streets of San Miguel de Allende (colonial
of the wealthy mostly Americans and Canadians and the
poor of course Mexicans) as often there would be
several older women INDIAN INDIGENOUS brown thin
sitting on the sidewalk begging for a little money. Now
when I offered food you should see the look on their
faces they would be so happy that I knew these women
were genuine in their need. So often people become
cynical. In the state of Guanajuato many many many of
the Mexican men are in the USA trying to make a living.
As people of the African diaspora we know what that does
to families children and women left alone selling goods
on street corners. Women sitting on sidewalks trying to
sell a few fruits and so on. The money that comes back
into México from these men is astounding.
One thing though I
hope and pray that reparations is not a dead issue.
Maybe it just needs a new approach.
However Rudy you
are right on target. Our brothers and sisters come in
all shades and colours and it is dangerous and risky
business to declare some one is or not your brother or
sister base on skin colour and country of origin.
When you get time
please do take a look at my new website
www.clairecarew.com I think you will like it. Please
free to pass it on to others and to let me know of
anyone in the art business.
Thank You and keep
the emails coming you made my Saturday morning. Muchas
never been to Mexico. And I
constantly flagellate that I am poor
at languages and I do not care much
for traveling to other countries.
Still I think Spanish should be a
public school requirement in the
Americas, much more so than French
(but that too), but also Portuguese.
I am willing to embrace the human
spirit and its suffering whatever
skin it comes in. I'm not too much
of a competitor. I do not have to
win. I won't us to win, all of us.
Maybe I am too romantic and too
sentimental. But that too can be
I checked out
and I will put a link to it on the
opening page of ChickenBones.
You know I am quite fond of you (we
went thru the tragedy of New Orleans
together and cried out tears) and
will do as much for your work as I
can, that is, to promote you as a
poet and artist and a wonderful
soul. I am certain I have some
artists and lovers of art and
artists in my address book. Of
course I want us to be a great big
loving family cooperating and
collaborating and supporting one
another. Below is a lyric I wrote
only the other day.
The Family Thing
It's the Family Thing -- for you &
It's the Family Thing (I say) -- for
you & me
It's the Family Thing -- for all of
Claire: Dear Rudy, I am
getting goose bumps as I try not to cry on reading your
The Family Thing
the Family Thing -- for you & me
the Family Thing (I say) -- for you & me
It's the Family Thing -- for all of
Thank you so much
for your support. Many blessings to you. I know we have
to support each other in all ways and yes Spanish is
definitely a language that needs to be taught to all in
public schools. I met a woman African American in San
Miguel de Allende who is now living there. She moved to
New Orleans 8 days before .... and lost everything
including valuable archival documents. She like all of
us is still shell shocked but her more so as she has to
keep going to straighten out business and so on.
I recall years ago
when Ben Johnson a track and field star from Canada was
caught using steriods how everyone turned on him. He ran
against Carl Lewis. Well let me tell you I am not a big
fan of sports but when they turned on him. I wrote a
poem and put up banners saying " Taking care of our own
we still love you Ben" It was kind of funny as I was on
the kitchen floor of a shared home with two young
Portuguese women and here I was with a hair dryer trying
to dry the banner fast enough for a gala event that
night where Ben would be. I decided it was best not to
ask permission and simply went and taped it on the side
of the stairs going up to the stage. Well it was in the
main newspapers the next day. I think you are the first
person outside of my family that know what I did.
Peace and Love to you and keep on speaking the truth.
Ben: Dear Rudy, a little historic insight:
Sarnoff, Baliban, Goldenson, Shubert, and Hurok were all
poor Russian Jews who could barely speak English. And
all spoke with very heavy accents.
Rudy, I agree with you totally. It upsets me so much
that some Black people, especially those in the middle
class, have taken an anti-immigration stance. Racism
and classism are at the basis of this issue; Mexicans
and Chicanos (Mexican Americans) are people of color,
descendants of Africans, Natives, and Europeans. We
need to study history, not just of Africans in the U.
S., but of Africans in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Your friend supports an open policy toward Africans,
Haitians and other Caribbeans, but many African
Americans are prejudiced against these groups as well.
With our complicity, this country has promoted a policy
of monoligualism and monoculturalism that too often pits
black and brown people against each other.
that immigrants learn English is just another example of
racism and cultural myopia. Was the same requirement
imposed on non-English-speaking Europeans? Shouldn't
the Amerendians, Caribes, and Arawaks have insisted that
the European conquerors learn their languages? Isn't it
embarrassing that every foreign leader, from Pakistan
and Indonesia and France to Poland, can speak English,
but our leaders are monolingual? Don't even get me
started on the language question because language is a
tool of political dominance. It is no accident that the
Catholic Kings imposed the Castilian language on the
other Iberian nations; language and religion were the
instruments of political homogenization, and the
conquistadors carried those instruments with them to the
Rudy, although you
have not learned a language or traveled widely, your
mind and heart are open to people of different cultures
and that is the main thing.
Claire has got it
right about the Mexican people. I have traveled often
in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and other countries in
the Caribbean and Caribbean Rimland where the people,
particularly the poor, indigenous and African-descended
people, are suffering so much. How can we close our
hearts and our borders to those who want to come here to
support their families, to send their children to
school, to buy homes and live decent lives?
Many of these poor
people are willing to sleep in cars, work two or three
jobs, do anything (clean bedpans in nursing homes,
repair roofs in 95-degree weather, and scrub pots in
hotel kitchens) to scrape together a few pennies. Yes,
they're exploited by the wealthy--just as the Chinese
were who came here in the 1870s to build the railroads;
just as the Jews were who came here in the 1890s to
escape the pogroms in Central Europe; just as the
Vietnamese and Cambodians were who came here in the
1970s to escape the Communists; just as the Haitian
boat people were; just as the Cuban Marielitos were;
and so on and so forth--and the capitalist exploitation
needs to stop!
So for me all this
business about Hispanics and illegal aliens is so much
As usual, Rudy, you make some very good points. What we
have here in this whole debate over undocumented workers
(illegal aliens is a derogatory term) is the White
capitalist game of "divide and conquer."
Herbert: Rudy and Linda, Your discourse revolves
around very complex issues. Having lived in Mexico for
eight years, perhaps I can shed some light on these very
complex issues. Who are the newest immigrants coming
into the country?
If one was to judge by phenotype, one
would immediately noticed that these new immigrants are
not white, and will never be able to pass for white.
They are brown or chocolate. They are Indians in their
The Indians are at the bottom of the
social class structure in Latin America. Evo Morales of
Bolivia became recently his country's first indigenous
head of state in over 250 years since the Spanish
These immigrants are not only
exploited and discriminated in their respective
countries, but also face similar problems after entering
in the U.S. in hopes of finding a brighter future.
I think in Baltimore, the majority of
the new immigrants are coming from El Salvador, a
country that has had a great deal of civil unrest for
years now. A good number of Mexicans are coming to
B-more, and many others from Latin American countries.
All are coming in hopes of a brighter future and
opportunities unavailable or difficult to obtain in
their countries. I believe we share a lot more in common
with many of these new immigrants.
Rudy, their is something also called
the African Diaspora. Rudy, have you ever heard of
santeria, vodun, candomble? Our ancestor believe in the
spirit world? Think of the Holiness Church...
Rudy: Herbert, yeah, you
right. I am glad I have friends who are much more even
tempered than I, less I find myself totally intolerable.
Thanks for your even-handedness. You know I have nothing
personal against Linda. I am fond of her and you know
she made a contribution to ChickenBones. She must
think I am a son of a bitch.
You must know, too, I am a
freethinker, in the best spirit of the word. That I have
been trained at the university to be skeptical toward
all that which is not scientific and smacks of
demagoguery and sleight of hand. I do my best to be
never uncritical. I hold to no party position. I openly
disagree with what I think is wrong and with that which
is intended to hoodwink, bamboozle, okey-doke the
uninformed, whatever the cost. That is, I try to make
the best uses of free speech.
posted 13 May 2006
* * *
* * * * *
The New Jim Crow
Mass Incarceration in the Age of
By Michele Alexander
Contrary to the
rosy picture of race embodied in Barack
Obama's political success and Oprah
Winfrey's financial success, legal
scholar Alexander argues vigorously and
persuasively that [w]e have not ended
racial caste in America; we have merely
redesigned it. Jim Crow and legal racial
segregation has been replaced by mass
incarceration as a system of social
control (More African Americans are
under correctional control today... than
were enslaved in 1850). Alexander
reviews American racial history from the
colonies to the Clinton administration,
delineating its transformation into the
war on drugs. She offers an acute
analysis of the effect of this mass
incarceration upon former inmates who
will be discriminated against, legally,
for the rest of their lives, denied
employment, housing, education, and
public benefits. Most provocatively, she
reveals how both the move toward
colorblindness and affirmative action
may blur our vision of injustice: most
Americans know and don't know the truth
about mass incarceration—but her
carefully researched, deeply engaging,
and thoroughly readable book should
* * * *
Blacks in Hispanic Literature: Critical Essays
Blacks in Hispanic Literature is a
collection of fourteen essays by scholars and
creative writers from Africa and the Americas.
Called one of two significant critical works on
Afro-Hispanic literature to appear in the late
1970s, it includes the pioneering studies of
Carter G. Woodson and
Valaurez B. Spratlin, published in the 1930s, as
well as the essays of scholars whose interpretations
were shaped by the Black aesthetic. The early
essays, primarily of the Black-as-subject in Spanish
medieval and Golden Age literature, provide an
historical context for understanding 20th-century
creative works by African-descended, Hispanophone
writers, such as Cuban
Nicolás Guillén and Ecuadorean poet, novelist,
Adalberto Ortiz, whose essay analyzes the
significance of Negritude in Latin America. This
collaborative text set the tone for later
conferences in which writers and scholars worked
together to promote, disseminate, and critique the
literature of Spanish-speaking people of African
descent. . . .
Cited by a
literary critic in 2004 as "the seminal study in the
field of Afro-Hispanic Literature . . . on which
most scholars in the field 'cut their teeth'."
* * *
(Books, DVDs, Music, and more)
update 11 March 2012