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Unfortunately, Edward Blyden and Malcolm X endorsed the conventional but false picture

that Islamic society was without racism. They, obviously, did not have the opportunity

to adequately investigate the realities when they visited the Arab lands.

 

 

Books by Chinweizu

 

 The West and the Rest of Us (1975) / Decolonising the African Mind (1987) / Voices from Twentieth-century Africa (1988)

 

Invocations and Admonitions (1986); Energy Crisis and Other Poems (1978); Anatomy of Female Power (1990)

 

 Towards the Decolonization of African Literature (1980).

 

*   *   *   *   *

 

Comparative Digests

Racism Arab and European Compared

 

By Chinweizu 

 

Part I

Concerning the lands of Islam in the Middle East, there is “the conventional picture of a society totally free from racial prejudice and discrimination.” This is “the false picture drawn by the myth makers.”—[Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, p.99]

Below is a digest of some of the evidence on the matter.

  White Euro-Christian Societies, Europe and Americas (1500-1950) White Arab-Islamic Societies, From Spain & Morocco to Pakistan (ca.600-2000)
Doctrines

Hume (1711-1776): “I am apt to suspect the Negroes . . . to be naturally inferior to the whites. There never was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or speculation. . . Not to mention our colonies, there are NEGROE slaves dispersed all over EUROPE, of which none ever discovered any symptom of ingenuity . . . In JAMAICA indeed they talk of one negroe as a man of parts and learning; but ‘tis likely he is admired for very slender accomplishments, like a parrot, who speaks a few words plainly.” [1741/42]

--[See David Hume, Essays: Moral, Political, and Literary, vol. I, ed. T.H. Green and T. H. Grose (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912), p. 252; quoted in Jacob H. Carruthers and Leon C. Harris eds, African World History Project: The Preliminary Challenge, Los Angeles, CA: ASCAC, 1997, p.33]

Montesquieu (1689-1755) in arguing for Negro inferiority said: “it is natural to look upon [white] color as the criterion of human nature. . . It is impossible for us to suppose these creatures to be men, because, allowing them to be men, a suspicion would follow that we ourselves are not Christians.” [1748] --[See Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, New York: Hafner, 1949, pp.238-239, quoted in Jacob Carruthers, Intellectual Warfare, Chicago: Third World Press, 1999, p.6]

Hegel (1770-1831) The Negro as already observed exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state . . . There is nothing harmonious with humanity to be found in this type of character.--G.W.F. Hegel, The Philosophy of History.(1831) Quoted in

I. Onyewuenyi, The African Origin of Greek Philosophy,p.96]

Kant (1724-1804), in his Anthropology and allied works on race theory, argued: “The white race possesses all motivating forces and talents in itself” and skin color is evidence of “this difference in natural character” hence “this fellow was quite black from head to foot, a clear proof that what he said was stupid.”

--[See Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, “The Color of Reason”, in Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, ed. Postcolonial African Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997, pp. 117, 119]

A Persian treatise on world geography, written in 982 AD says:

“As regards southern countries, all their inhabitants are black on account of the heat of their climate. Most of them go naked. . . . They are people distant from the standards of humanity.” And of the Zanj: “Their nature is that of wild animals. They are extremely black.”

 –[See Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, pp. 35]

The great geographer, Idrisi (1110-1165), ascribes “lack of knowledge and defective minds” to the black peoples. Their ignorance, he says, is notorious; Men of learning and distinction are almost unknown among them. –[See Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, pp.37]

Even such luminaries as Ibn Sina [Avicenna (980-1037), the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of Islam], considered blacks to be “people who are by their very nature slaves.” “Blasphemy Before God: The Darkness of Racism In Muslim Culture” by Adam Misbah aI-Haqq

Sa ‘id al-Andalusi (1029-1070) a qadi of Toledo:

“They lack self-control and steadiness of mind and are overcome by fickleness, foolishness and ignorance, Such are the blacks, who live at the extremity of the land of Ethiopia, the Nubians, the Zanj and the like . . .”  . . .

The 13th century Persian writer Nasir al-Din Tusi remarks that the Zanj differ from animals only in that “their two hands are lifted above the ground,” and continues “Many have observed that the ape is more teachable and more intelligent than the Zanj.” –[See Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, pp.35, 36, 38]

Osama Bin Laden said to the Sudanese-American novelist Kola Boof in Morocco in 1996.“All African women are prostitutes, and the whole race of African men are abeed [slave] stock. Your people are like rats plaguing the earth” –[Kola Boof, Diary of a Lost Girl, p. 167]

“In the eyes of the Arab rulers of Sudan they [black slaves] were simply animals given by Allah to make the life of the Arab comfortable” --quoted in Nyaba, P. A., Arab Racism in the Sudan, p.163.

Stereotypes

The Negro was “a merry-hearted, grinning, dancing, singing, affectionate kind of creature, with a great deal of melody and amenability in his composition”

Thomas Carlyle, “The Nigger Question,” Fraser’s Magazine, December 1849 [See Wilfred Cartey, Black Images, p. 2]

 

 

 

 

[find and quote more examples]

 

 

 

 

 

 

The black (person) is frivolous and lighthearted . . . musical, and with a strong feeling of rhythm. Thus Ibn Butlan remarks that “If a Zanj were to fall from heaven to earth he would beat time as he goes down”

–[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, pp. 94-95]

---------

In Arab societies, the accusations commonly brought against “the dark-skinned peoples—and especially the Zanj, the blacks of East Africa” [included] “weakness of mind, lack of discernment, and ignorance of consequences”, “boundless stupidity”, “dimness”,  “obtuseness”, “crude perceptions”, and “evil dispositions”. Jahiz of Basra (ca. 776-869) wrote a defense against these stereotypes.

To those who ask “How is it that we have never seen a Zanji who had the intelligence even of a woman or of a child” Jahiz also gave an answer. –[See Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, pp. 15-17]

------

An Arab proverb about the Zanj: “When he is hungry he steals, when he is sated he fornicates” –[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, p. 34]

One drop rule

 

 

(USA) Just one drop of Black blood, i.e. (any visible trace of) one black ancestor makes one black

[Find and quote Booker T. Washington’s joke on this— something about how powerful black blood must be if one drop makes a white into a black]

 

(Sudan) One drop of Arab blood plus Islam and Arabic language makes one an Arab:

 “One is classified an Arab if one is a Muslim and speaks the Arabic language and more specifically if one has [the] light (red) skin [of the Arab-black hybrid]”

[ Nyaba, P.A., “Arab Racism in the Sudan”]

Social strata;

Economic and legal inequality

 

 

In Saint Domingue (colonial Haiti) the population was ranked from the top down, as follows: French Whites (transients), Creole Whites (those born on the island), Mulattoes (in ten or more classes, all the way from nearly white to nearly pure black), Freed Blacks, and the Slaves (nearly all black, with about 10% Mulattoes) at the bottom.       

[See Carruthers, The Irritated Genie, pp. 15-17]

In the USA until the 1960s, under slavery and thereafter under Jim Crow, the law and the terrorism of white mobs enforced a color-caste system. Racial inequality is enshrined in the US Constitution, in its “3/5 of a man” clause; and in the Dred Scott case (1857) the Supreme court ruled that blacks, whether freed or slave, were not citizens, and had no rights that whites were bound to respect. The Slave Codes “were directed toward defining Africans as property and depriving them of any legal or human right or personality. Under these [Slave Codes] the African slave could not make a contract, could not testify against anyone except another African, could not strike a white man even in self-defense; could not leave a plantation without authorization; could not possess firearms; could not visit whites or free Africans or entertain them in their quarters; could not assemble without whites; could not learn or be taught to read or write; and could not even beat drums or blow horns” Under the Black Codes of the Jim Crow era, blacks suffered segregation in schools, transportation, housing, sports, and were discriminated against in jobs.

–[See Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies, (1982), pp 86,102, 106]

 

The ranking order in Arab society

Among the ancient Arabs there was an elaborate system of social gradations. . . .The term commonly used by the ancient Arabs for the offspring of mixed unions was hajin, a word which, like the English “mongrel” and “half-breed,” was used of both animals and of human beings… [W]hen applied to human beings, [it denotes] a person whose father was Arab and free and whose mother was a foreign slave. . . . Full Arabs—those born of two free Arab parents—ranked above half-Arabs, the children of Arab fathers and non-Arab mothers. . . . Half-Arabs, in turn, ranked above non-Arabs, who were, so to speak, outside the system. According to ‘Abduh Badawi, “there was a consensus that the most unfortunate of the hajins and the lowest in social status were those to whom blackness had passed from their mothers.. . . The son of an Arab father and a Persian or Syrian mother would not look very different from the son of two Arab parents. . . The son of an African mother, however, was usually recognizable at sight and therefore more exposed to abuse and discrimination. “Son of a black woman” was a not infrequent insult addressed to such persons, and “son of a white woman” was accordingly used in praise or boasting

–[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East pp.39- 40]

Another black poet Da’ud ibn Salm (d, ca.750), known as Da’ud the Black (a-Adlam) was famous for his ugliness. It is said that on one occasion he was, together with an Arab called Zayd ibn Ja’far, arrested and brought before a judge in Mecca, on a charge of flaunting luxurious clothes. The two accused received very different treatment. The handsome Arab was released; the ugly black was flogged.

[ See Lewis, Race and Color in Islam, pp. 11-14]
Sexual stereotypes

In Spanish America, some of the sexual stereotypes on the black slaves were:

The nigger stud lusting to rape white women;

The Negress who unleashes lust; the Mulata who kindles the drunken delirium of the senses; etc

[See Wilfred Cartey, Black Images, p. 2]

[Find and quote from other studies of the subject]

Immense potency and unbridled sexuality was ascribed to the black male; and incandescent sexuality was ascribed to the black woman e.g. in the poem

 “How many a tender daughter of the Zanj walks about with a hotly burning oven   as broad as a drinking bowl”--Farazdaq,

[ See Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, p.94]
Stereotypes in Literature

“The nigger” according to Roark Bradford is indolent, entirely irresponsible, shiftless, the bugaboo of Anglo-Saxon ideals, a poor fighter and a poor hater, primitively emotional and uproariously funny.  . . . Those (Negro stereotypes) considered important enough for separate classification are seven in number: (1) The Contented Slave, (2) The Wretched Freeman, (3) The Comic Negro, (4) The Brute Negro, (5) The Tragic Mulatto, (6) The Local Color Negro, and (7) The Exotic Primitive.

[See Sterling Brown, “Negro Character as seen by White Authors” in Dark Symphony, pp.139, 140]

 

 

 

The portrayal of blacks in Islamic literature begins at an early date, and soon falls into a few stereotyped categories. They appear—usually though not always as slaves—in the stories of the Prophet and his Companions; as demons and monsters in Persian mythology; as the remote and exotic inhabitants of the land of the Zanj and other places, as for example the cannibal islands of South and Southeast Asia. . . . Most commonly, however, the black portrayed in literature is . . . a familiar household figure, as slave or servant or attendant. The black slave or attendant is often part of the background depicted in narrative belles-lettres. Occasionally—though infrequently—he plays a more prominent role in the story. This may be either negative or positive. Where negative, his crimes are usually lechery, greed, and ingratitude; where positive, he is the prototype of simple piety and loyalty, which achieve the ultimate reward from God. Paradoxically, this reward may take the form of his turning white.

–[B. Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, p.95]

Ideological / Theological legitimation

 

The Curse of Ham

The identification of Hamites with blacks comes from a Jewish oral tradition first recorded in the Babylonian Talmud in the sixth century A.D. There the story is told that Ham crept up on his father, Noah and, for some unexplained reason, castrated him while he slept. On awakening, Noah cursed his son in these words:

    Now I cannot beget the fourth son whose      children I would have ordered to serve you and your brothers! Therefore it must be Canaan, your firstborn, whom they enslave. And since you have disabled me . . . doing ugly things in blackness and night, Canaan’s children shall be born ugly and black! Moreover, because you twisted your head around to see my nakedness, your grandchildren’s hair shall be twisted into kinks, and their eyes red; again because your lip jested at my misfortune, theirs shall swell; and because you neglected my nakedness, they shall  go naked, and their male members shall be shamefully elongated! Men of this race are called Negroes.

   

 different—and somewhat tamer –version of the story can be found in the Bible. The Book of Genesis says only that Ham “saw his father’s nakedness” while Noah lay drunk. This seems a far less egregious sin on Ham’s part than castrating his father. Even so, Noah still punished it with a curse. The Biblical version of the curse makes no mention of blackness. It says:

Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. . . . May Canaan be the slave      of Shem. . . . May God extend the territory of  Japhet; may Japhet live in the tents of Shem, and      may Canaan be his slave.

Thus, Canaan receives two versions of the curse. In the Bible, he is cursed only with slavery. In the Babylonian Talmud, he is cursed with both slavery and blackness. From this slender evidence, American slave owners wove an elaborate theological justification for their enslavement of blacks.

–[Richard Poe, 1999, Black Spark, White Fire, pp.370-371

----------

Robert E. Lee (1807-1870): “The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, socially and physically. The painful discipline they are undergoing is necessary for their instruction as a race, and I hope will prepare and lead them to better things. How long their subjugation may be necessary is known and ordered by a wise Merciful Providence.”

--[Robert E. Lee, Letter to his wife, December 27, 1858 quoted in Wilfred Cartey, Black Images, New York: Teachers College Press, 1970, p. 2]

The Curse of Ham

Classic Muslim thought maintained that blacks became legitimate slaves by virtue of the color of their skin. The justification of the early Muslim equation of blackness with servitude was found in the Genesis story so popularly called “the curse of Ham,” in reference to one of Noah's sons . . . .In the Arab-Muslim version, blacks are cursed to be slaves and menials, Arabs are blessed to be prophets and nobles, while Turks and Slavs are destined to be kings and tyrants. . . .

The famous Al-Tabari, for example, cites no less than six Prophetic traditions which seek to support this story. One tradition reads:
   Ham begat all those who are black and curly-haired, while Japheth begat those who are full faced with small eyes, and Shem begat everyone who is handsome of face (Arabs of course) with beautiful hair. Noah prayed that the hair of Ham's descendants would not grow past their ears, and wherever his descendants met the children of Shem, the latter would enslave them.

Ahmad Ibn Hanbal reported a saying attributed to the Prophet which in effect states that God created the white race (dhurriyyah bayd) from the right shoulder of Adam and created the black race (dhurriyyah sawd) from Adam's left shoulder. Those of Adam's right shoulder would enter Paradise and those of the left, Perdition. Other equally racist sayings have been attributed to the Prophet in the traditions. Contradicting this spirit, there are the sayings of the Prophet which equate the value of a person to his God-consciousness (taqwa), and to their piety without any regard to the tribal or ethnocentric concerns of a racist purport.
 

Such [egalitarian] reports [were overshadowed by] the more deeply rooted tradition of racial bigotry . . . [emphasized by] Muslim geographers and travelers who ventured into Africa. . . . . Al-Maqdisi [tenth century] wrote, “ . . . As for the Zanji, they are people of black color, flat noses, kinky hair, and little understanding or intelligence.” . . .  Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406CE) added that blacks are “only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings.” . . . Even such luminaries as Ibn Sina considered blacks to be “people who are by their very nature slaves.” . . .
 

The creation or resurgence of the mythology of Ham also made dark-skinned people synonymous with servitude in light-skinned Muslim thinking. This went so far that eventually the term abd (slave) went through a semantic development and came to specifically refer to “black slave” while light-skinned slaves were referred to as mamluks. And further on in later usage, the Arabic word abd came to mean “black man” of whatever status. . .

[from “Blasphemy Before God: The Darkness of Racism In Muslim Culture” by Adam Misbah aI-Haqq,  .MuslimWakeUp

In Islamic tradition, slavery was perceived as a means of converting non-Muslims . . . as a form of religious apprenticeship for pagans.

—[Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, p.16
Colorism: discrimination on basis of skin color

In the USA, among the plethora of entrenched color-based inequalities that were challenged by the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s were racially segregated schools and housing, segregationist laws and practices in transportation which forced seating by race; racially segregated restaurants, hotels and other public facilities; racial discrimination in jobs; inequality before the law; political inequality and disenfranchisement; and anti-miscegenation rules. All of these penalized blacks on the basis of color.

–[See Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies, (1982), pp 126-130]

-----

What’s written down

for white folks

ain’t for us a-tall:

“Liberty And Justice—

Huh—For All.”

--Langston Hughes [quoted in Jemie, Yo’ Mama!, p. 39]

--------

A yellow gal rides in a limousine,

A brownskin does the same

A black gal rides in a old-time Ford,

But she gets there just the same

 

White folks lives in a fine brick house,

Lord, the yellow gal does the same,

Poor black man lives in the big rock jail,

But it’s a brick house just the same.

--[American Negro folk poem in Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps eds The Book of Negro Folklore,pp.514-515]

 

 

 

 

[In Arab culture, there is] the emotional content attached to the concepts of blackness and whiteness—the idea that black is connected with sin, evil, deviltry and damnation, while white has the opposite associations

--–[ Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, p.94]

 

Colorism in Sudan

Arab culture standardizes the white color, and despises the black color. . . .They say al‑husnu ahmar (beauty is white). . . . [In Northern Sudanese culture] the first color in ranking is asfar. This literally means "yellow", but used interchangeably with ahmar to denote "whiteness". . . . ahmar (white) is the ultimate standard color for the average Northerner. It is considered the standard color of the in‑group, i.e. the center of the Arab identity. . . . The second in ranking is asmar. This literally means reddish, but it is used to describe a range of color shades from light to dark brown. This range usually includes subdivisions such as dahabi (golden), gamhi (the color of ripe wheat), and khamri (the color of red wine). The third in ranking is akhdar. This literally means green, but it is used as a polite alternative of the word "black" in describing the color of a dark Northerner. . . . .The early Arabs used the word akhdar to describe people of unquestionable nobility whose color, for one reason or the other, was black. . . .Last and least is azrag. This literally means "blue", but it is used interchangeably with aswad to mean "black", which is the color of the 'abid. . . .Janice Boddy shows how the women of Hofriyat village are conscious of skin color. To them, "white skin is clean, beautiful, and a mark of potential holiness". They repeatedly told her that, as a white woman, she had far greater chances to get into heaven, if she converted to Islam, than them or any other Sudanese. Their reasoning was that "this is because the Prophet Mohammad was white, and all white‑skinned peoples are in the favored position of belonging to his tribal group.”. . . Northerners showed readiness to intermarry with white people, be they Europeans or Arabs, but they demonstrated reluctance to intermarry with black people, be they Southerners or Africans in general . . .Northerners usually experience [a feeling of dismay] when they discover, for the first time, that they are considered blacks in Europe and America. It is also observed in their attitude towards the black communities there. . . . Northerners attitude towards the black population in these countries [Europe and America] is similar to their attitude towards the [Sudanese] Southerners. They usually refer to them by the word "abid' [slave],  and one of my interviewees, once, referred to the  Afro Caribbeans as Southerners 'janubiyyin

 

—[AI‑Baqir al‑Afif Mukhtar “Crisis of Identity in Northern Sudan”]

Opportunity

Limited

by color:

Black-ness as an

Affliction

 

Before Emancipation in 1863, most blacks in the USA were chattel slaves, with no more opportunities than horses or other live property. The few freed blacks were severely restricted in their educational and economic opportunities and had no political opportunities at all. After emancipation, the freed blacks were reduced to semi-slave conditions as peons or sharecroppers. In urban areas, black “skilled workers were strongly opposed by white artisans in their employment efforts.

–[See Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies, (1982), p. 106

Negroes:

     Last to be hired

     First to be fired

 --[American Negro folk saying in Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps, eds. The Book of Negro Folklore,pp.514]

Some view our sable race with scornful eye,

‘Their colour is a diabolical die.’

Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain,

May be refin’d, and join th’angelic train.

--(1773)[Phillis Wheatley, quoted in Jahnheinz Jahn, Neo-African Literature, p. 37]

We know in America how to discourage, choke, and murder ability when it so far forgets itself as to choose a dark skin.”

—(1920)[Du Bois, Darkwater, p.117]

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whereas white slaves could become generals, provincial governors, sovereigns, and founders of dynasties, this hardly ever happened with black slaves in the central Islamic lands. . . . The same limitation of opportunity applies to the emancipated slave. The emancipated white slave was free from any kind of restriction; the emancipated black slave was at most times and places rarely able to rise above the lowest levels.

–[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East pp. 59, 60]

[Given such color discrimination, it is not surprising that, for the Black Arabs and the Black African slaves and freedmen in the Arab lands, blackness was an affliction. Some of their complaints are recorded]:

The poet Suhaym (d. 660), born a slave and of African origin, laments in one poem:

             If my color were pink, women would love me

             But the Lord has marred me with blackness.

In another poem he defends himself:

         Though I am a slave my soul is nobly free.

         hough I am black of color my character is white.

Another black poet Nusayb ibn Rabah (d. 726) complained:

           If I am jet-black, musk too is very dark—and

           here is no medicine for the blackness of my skin  

And al-Hayqutan, a black slave, responded to abuse and said

         Though my hair is wooly and my skin coal-black,

         My hand is open and my honor bright.

–[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East pp. 28, 29]

In Umayyad times, we still hear of black poets and singers achieving some sort of social standing, even though they complain of discrimination. In later times, the black poet as a figure in Arabic literature disappears and none of any consequence are reported from the mid-eighth century onward.

–[Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East pp. 60-61]

As the table above shows, almost every key aspect of European racism has its Arab/Islamic counterpart—or worse! Unfortunately, Edward Blyden and Malcolm X endorsed the conventional but false picture that Islamic society was without racism. They, obviously, did not have the opportunity to adequately investigate the realities when they visited the Arab lands. In the light of the above evidence, Black Africans cannot use their authority to cling to the false picture.

 

Sources

 

AI‑Baqir al‑Afif Mukhtar (n. d.)  “Crisis of Identity in Northern Sudan” [Unpublished essay]

AI-Haqq, Adam Misbah (n.d.)  “Blasphemy Before God: The Darkness of Racism In Muslim Culture.”  Muslim Wake Up

Brown, Sterling  (1933) “Negro Character as seen by White Authors” in James A. Emmanuel and Theodore L. Gross, eds. (1968) Dark Symphony, New York: The Free Press

Carruthers, Jacob (1985) The Irritated Genie, Chicago: Kemetic Institute

Carruthers, Jacob H and Harris, Leon C. eds, African World History Project: The Preliminary Challenge, Los Angeles, CA: ASCAC, 1997

Cartey, Wilfred (1970) Black Images, New York: Teachers College Press, 1970

Du Bois, (1999) Darkwater, New York: Dover,

Greer, William H. and Cobbs, Price M. (1968) Black Rage, New York: Bantam, quoted in  Jemie (2003)

Hughes, Langston and Bontemps, Arna eds (1958) The Book of Negro Folklore, New York: Dodd, Mead & Company

Hume, David  (1912) Essays: Moral, Political, and Literary, vol. I, ed. T.H. Green and T. H. Grose New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912,; quoted in Jacob H. Carruthers and Leon C. Harris eds, (1997)

Jemie, Onwuchekwa (2003) Yo’ Mama!, Philadelphia: Temple University Press,

Karenga, Maulana (1982) Introduction to Black Studies, (1982),

Kola Boof, (2006) Diary of a Lost Girl,

Lewis, Bernard (1990) Race and Slavery in the Middle East, New York: Oxford University Press

_____________(1971) Race and Color in Islam, New York: Harper Torchbooks

Montesquieu, (1949) The Spirit of the Laws, New York: Hafner,  pp.238-239, quoted in Jacob Carruthers, Intellectual Warfare, Chicago: Third World Press, 1999]

Nyaba, Peter Adwok (2006) “Arab Racism in the Sudan” in Kwesi Kwaa Prah ed. (2006) Racism in the Global African Experience, Cape Town: CASAS

Poe, Richard (1999) Black Spark, White Fire, Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing

*   *   *   *   *

In the headings of the two major chapters of [Hinton Helper’s] book, the whole symbolic apparatus of the white aesthetic handed down from Plato to America is graphically revealed: the heading of one chapter reads: “Black: A Thing of Ugliness, Disease”; another heading reads: “White: A Thing of Life, Health, and Beauty”

—[Addison Gayle, Jr. the Black Aesthetic, New York: Doubleday, 1972, p. 42]

*   *   *   *   *

Feel free notice

Please feel free to fwd this document to any Pan-African persons, or to publish and reproduce it, unedited and in its entirety, to the Pan-African community, provided you credit the author, do not change, cut or add any word or otherwise mutilate the piece, i.e. publish as is or don’t at all.

If posted at a website, please email a copy of the web page to sundoor777@hyperia.com

For print media use, please obtain prior written permission, and then send two (2) copies of the publication wherein used, to Chinweizu, P. O. Box 988, Festac Town, Lagos, Nigeria. For further information please contact Chinweizu, sundoor777@hyperia.com

All rights reserved. © Chinweizu 2007

posted 12 November 2007

*   *   *   *   *

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#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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Super Rich: A Guide to Having it All

By Russell Simmons

Russell Simmons knows firsthand that wealth is rooted in much more than the stock  market. True wealth has more to do with what's in your heart than what's in your wallet. Using this knowledge, Simmons became one of America's shrewdest entrepreneurs, achieving a level of success that most investors only dream about. No matter how much material gain he accumulated, he never stopped lending a hand to those less fortunate. In Super Rich, Simmons uses his rare blend of spiritual savvy and street-smart wisdom to offer a new definition of wealth-and share timeless principles for developing an unshakable sense of self that can weather any financial storm. As Simmons says, "Happy can make you money, but money can't make you happy."

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Greenback Planet: How the Dollar Conquered

the World and Threatened Civilization as We Know It

By H. W. Brands

In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar's astonishing rise to become the world's principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar's changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America's economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan's bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt's handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar's dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today. He concludes with a sobering dissection of the 2008 world financial debacle, which exposed the power--and the enormous risks--of the dollar's worldwide reign.  The Economy

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label 'trafficked' does not accurately describe migrants' lives and that the 'rescue industry' serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. "Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality."—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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