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Reforming Education for Liberation

Educating Our Children Table




We all know that the right kind of education that leads to the right kind of acts is that which will lead to our liberation. First, it was learning how to write that pass that would help us to escape the brutality of night patrollers, agents of the slaveholding elite. Then, it was knowing how to read those manumission papers to know that the $800 you were shoveling over for your freedom and that of your spouse and child was indeed the freedom papers for which you had sacrificed.

But then you need to know how to read a map, to know the difference between latitude and longitude, additional skills so that you could raise your salary as captain of your own ship so that you could have that house in a respectable section of town and so that you could provide an excellent education for your daughter and/or son so that he/she would have a step up in life in a new world with greater demands than the one you faced.

Now, it is not so much an education for a greater salary. This new world demands even more attentiveness. Access is being limited more and more based on what is called the meritocracy. Those precious few who inherited wealth and station. One need access to information and skills more than ever to defend one's place in society with all the privileges of a free first-class citizen.

The corporations more insidiously are trying to destroy or seize public education to make its students and teachers mere cogs in the corporate/military machines, whose directions are toward greater and greater profits for the few and greater and more numerous conflicts around the world are being generated as a means of seizing scarce resources  needed to appropriate from the powerless for the comforts and luxuries of the  1%.

Both teachers and students and society are at risk. The intent of this page is to provide links to resources and publications by which one might make sense of this struggle for equity access and equity inputs so that education that can make a difference in the lives of individuals and society as a whole.

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 Racism: A History, the 2007 BBC 3-part documentary explores the impact of racism on a global scale. It was part of the season of programs on the BBC marking the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. It's divided into 3 parts.

The first, The Colour of Money . . . Racism: A History [2007]—1/3

Begins the series by assessing the implications of the relationship between Europe, Africa and the Americas in the 15th century. It considers how racist ideas and practices developed in key religious and secular institutions, and how they showed up in writings by European philosophers Aristotle and Immanuel Kant.

The second, Fatal Impact . . . Racism: A History [2007] - 2/3

Examines the idea of scientific racism, an ideology invented during the 19th century that drew on now discredited practices such as phrenology and provided an ideological justification for racism and slavery. The episode shows how these theories ultimately led to eugenics and Nazi racial policies of the master race.

And the 3rd, A Savage Legacy . . .  Racism: A History [2007] - 3/3

Examines the impact of racism in the 20th century. By 1900 European colonial expansion had reached deep into the heart of Africa. Under the rule of King Leopold II, the Belgian Congo was turned into a vast rubber plantation. Men, women and children who failed to gather their latex quotas would have their limbs dismembered. The country became the scene of one of the century's greatest racial genocides, as an estimated 10 million Africans perished under colonial rule.

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CTU Strikes: 1969 – 1987 / CORE Chicago Teachers Union

Produced by CORE (the Caucus of Rank and File Educators of the Chicago Teachers Union) and Chicago's Labor Beat. Titled "CTU Strikes: 1968 - 1987", the video was made during the summer of 2012 in conjunction with the four CORE "Successful Chicago Strikes" forums. It is now up and available on You Tube.

The video contains interviews from retired Chicago Teachers Union members who participated in these strikes and historic archival visuals. Here is a 28 minute overview of the 1969-1987 period, as well as a brief summary of the years since then.  The video is available in DVD format from CORE for $10 from CORE at

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50 Years of Progress Since Brown (Lewis)

Abell Report (Conversations)

Africa or America: The Emphasis in Black Studies Programs

Afterword (King)

Askia Touré and Marvin X on Black Studies

Back to School Poems for Children (Terry)

Black Education (King) 

Black Education Afterword (King) 

Black Education and Afro-Pessimism (Hayes)

Black Educators Organize Flood Relief

Black Freedom Fighters in Steel (Needleman)

Black Schools Kill Smart Niggers?

Black Studies Forty Years Later

Black Studies in the Age of Obama (Ahmad)

A Bone to Pick: Saving Baltimore’s Kids  (Sharif)

Bridging the Racial Gap in Education (Marvin X)

Cecil Elementary's Black History Month

Changing the HBCU Narrative (Duncan)

The Collapse of Urban Public Schooling  (Hayes)

Control, Conflict, and Change (Forman)

Corporate Plantation: Political Repression and the Hampton Model 

Dilemma of Black Urban Education? 

A Documentary History of Negro Education (Table)

The Dropout Challenge  (Boggs)

Educator Writes and Self-Publishes Children's Book (Stanton)

The Ethnic Cleansing of HBCUs in the Age of Obama (Issa)

First students graduate from Winfrey's South African school (Bryson)

From HBCUs to BCUs (Beasley)

Give Detroit Schools a Fresh Start (Boggs)  

HBCUs & Black Educators 

HBCUs Table

The Importance of an African Centered Education (Kalamu)

Interview with Franklin Knight

Introduction White Nationalism 

Johnston Square Mentoring Winners

Joyce King Commentary

The Meritocracy Myth (Guinier)

The Mis-Education of African American Youth (Somburu)

Miseducation of America's Youth (Boggs)

Mismanaging Education in Philadelphia (Stanton)

Moratorium on Theory (Lewis)

The Myth of Charter Schools (Ravitch)

Negro Progress in American Education

No New Thinking on Africana Politics and Philosophy

Quality Education for Black & Brown (Lewis)

Reading Africana

Responses to Race as a Decoy for Class (Foxworth, Lewis)

Say It Loud! Program

School Bell Rings

Security Guards Beat School Teen over Cake Spill

Should BAM Conference at Howard University Be Boycotted?

SOS: A Rising Student Movement  (Boggs)

The State of HBCUs  (13 December 2005) The State of HBCUs for Black Students & Faculty

Statistics on the Inequities (Lewis)

Support Letter for Dr. Jahi Issa (Faraji)

Teach for America (Hartman)

Unschooler Education Celebrated by CNN (McInnis)

Ten Vital Principles for Black Education (King) 

Waverly Elementary School Children's Writings & Artwork

Waverly Elementary School Children's Writings & Artwork

Related files

African Origins of Science and Mathematics

Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher

Educating Our Children (Table)

Education and History

HBCUs Table

King: Montgomery to Memphis (video) 

Pogus Caesar—Portrait Of Handworth riot in 1985 (video)     

Rage Against The Machine—Revolution in The Head (video) 

State of HBCU Archives

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Chris Hedges: Dems Owe Chicago Public Teachers Support for "Most Important Labor Action in Decades"And it really boils down to the fact that we spend $600-some billion a year, the federal government, on education, and the corporations want it. That’s what’s happening. And that comes through charter schools. It comes through standardized testing. And it comes through breaking teachers’ unions and essentially hiring temp workers, people who have very little skills. This is what Teach for America is about. They teach by rote, and they earn nothing. There’s no career. . . . .

And the Chicago strike illustrates the bankruptcy of both traditional labor and the Democratic Party. . . . And I see what is happening in Chicago as intimately linked to the Occupy movement itself. It’s community-based. It is fighting both political parties, that have sold out to corporate interests.

I mean, the enemy of the Chicago Teachers Union is, you know, one of the most important figures within the Democratic Party and of course a close ally of Barack Obama. I mean, that whole convention, which you covered, you know, not one major Democratic figure, as far as I know, has come out in support of the teachers in Chicago.—democracynow / Lining up against Chicago teachers /CTU Strikes: 1969 – 1987

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Feds: Authorities in Meridian, Miss. Violated Rights of Black Children10 August 2012—The Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division has released investigative findings determining that children in predominantly black Meridian, Miss. have had their constitutional rights violated by the Lauderdale County Youth Court, the Meridian Police Department, and the Mississippi Division of Youth Services in what civil rights investigators allege is a school to prison pipeline with even dress code violations resulting in incarceration. . . . Also in the findings letter the Civil Rights Division alleges that “Lauderdale County and the Youth Court Judges violate the Fourth, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments by failing to provide children procedural due process in the youth court. Lauderdale County, the Youth Court judges, and the Mississippi Division of Youth Services violate the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments by failing to provide children procedural due process rights in the probationary process.” . . .

“The system established by the City of Meridian, Lauderdale County, and DYS to incarcerate children for school suspensions ‘shocks the conscience,’ resulting in the incarceration of children for alleged ‘offenses’ such as dress code violations, flatulence, profanity, and disrespect.” The Justice Department findings letter noted.—abcnews / photo left Mayor Cheri Barry

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Rudy, I have done little work in Meridian, Mississippi, but Derrick Johnson, Director of Mississippi NAACP has been working in Meridian for the past two years around the current issue of the pipeline created to ship students from school to jail.  While Meridian’s population is majority black (sixty-two percent), the political leadership is still majority white.  And in many small Mississippi towns the change to have the political leadership mirror the population is always slow and painful because most of the African Americans who desire to engage in political leadership also work directly for the very whites who control the government.  So, the issues of intimidation and fear are very real aspects of this struggle for power.  It is very easy to call someone a coward, but most of those calling someone a coward don’t have to remain in the town.

This struggle with Meridian’s schoolhouse to jailhouse pipeline has been brewing for five years with the NAACP helping parents to organize, contact the Department of Justice, and to file a lawsuit.  After the filing of the lawsuit, the former mayor, John Robert Smith, due to the pressure of organized parents and the investigation of the DOJ, appointed a mostly African American school board, which, in turn, hired the first African American School Board Supervisor whose last name is Kent.  Kent, by all accounts, was working with parents and the DOJ to change many of the policies of the past.  Unfortunately, Mayor Smith retried, and the African American who ran for mayor was defeated by two hundred votes by current white female Mayor Cheri Bailey who appointed a new school board, which, in turn, fired Mr. Kent and hired Dr. Alvin Taylor, who is an African American.  Dr. Taylor has not reinstituted the policies that created the schoolhouse to jailhouse pipeline, but the new mayor and some of the school board members appointed by the mayor have attempted to slow the change or reinstitute the old policies, but the pressure from the DOJ, the NAACP, and the parents have held the fort, so to speak.  That’s about all the information I have.  For more information on this, you can contact Derrick Johnson at  Take care and thank you for continuing to be an independent critical thinker, providing a venue for our people.

C. Liegh McInnis

9 September 2012

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Tennessee Tea Party to Children What Slaves?

By Abby Zimet

Showing a marked adversity for anything remotely resembling the truth, Tennessee Tea Party leaders have issued "demands" to state legislators that schools stop teaching—through "neglect and outright ill-will"all that bad stuff about our fine Founding Fathers like the "made-up criticism" that maybe they owned slaves or killed Indians or did other icky things, and that, “No portrayal of minority experience in the history which actually occurred shall obscure the experience or contributions of the Founding Fathers, or the majority of citizens.” This, after Texas approved 100 revisions to textbooks for its almost five million kids that would rename slave trade "Atlantic triangular trade," explore the "unintended consequences" of affirmative action," emphasize the role of the Christian Church in the nation's founding, call for studying iconic conservatives like Phyllis Schlafly and The Moral Majority, and otherwise twist "history" to their liking. "We seek to compel the teaching (of) the truth regarding the history of our nation and the nature of its government.” Commondreams

Tea parties issue demands to Tennessee legislators—13 January 2011—“Neglect and outright ill will have distorted the teaching of the history and character of the United States. We seek to compel the teaching of students in Tennessee the truth regarding the history of our nation and the nature of its government.” That would include, the documents say, that “the Constitution created a Republic, not a Democracy.” . . .“No portrayal of minority experience in the history which actually occurred shall obscure the experience or contributions of the Founding Fathers, or the majority of citizens, including those who reached positions of leadership.”CommercialAppeal 

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Child Humiliated By Mock Slave Auction at Elementary School—By Samuel Aleshinloye—4 March  2011—Gahanna, Ohio—An African-American mother and son were astonished after a History teacher at Chapelfield Elementary School held a mock slave auction,  dividing the class into “Slaves” and “Masters”. The class only had two black students in the class; one was assigned “Master”, and the other, Nikko Burton, was assigned “Slave.”

Burton, 10, was sent to his seat after he refused to be poked, prodded, and be humiliated during the reenactment.  A spokeswomen for the school maintains that the lesson is part of a “state required” curriculum. While a representative for the school has apologized to the family over the phone, 10 year old Burton wishes that the teacher would have apologized to him personally.—NewsOne

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Men We Love, Men We Hate
SAC writings from Douglass, McDonogh 35, and McMain high schools in New Orleans.

An anthology on the topic of men and relationships with men

Ways of Laughing
An Anthology of Young Black Voices
Photographed & Edited by
Kalamu ya Salaam

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Detroit Ordered to Close Half Its Public Schools Amid Budget Crisis—22 Feb 2011—Tylan Franklin, 8, stands outside Bunche Elementary in Detroit on March 17. The school closed in June, and now Detroit has been ordered to close half its remaining 142 public schools over the next four years to make up a $327 million deficit. . . . The plan, mandated by state education officials, will reduce the number of schools in the district from 142 to 72.

Robert Bobb, the district's emergency financial manager, said he was preparing a list of recommended school closures and that layoffs would be announced closer to April, according to The Detroit News. But Bobb said he doesn't think the plan will be effective because it's likely to drive students out of the district, making the fiscal crisis worse. He expects the district's 74,000 students will have been reduced to 58,570 by 2014.

The Detroit school budget is weighed down with $53 million in pension costs, $45 million for health care and $27 million for utilities. The district has lost 83,336 students in the past 10 years, which translates to a loss of more than $573 million in funding.AOLnews

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My Holy Bible for African-American Children

King James Version. by Cheryl and Wade Hudson

Book Review by Kam Williams

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Michigan School Official Begs Governor, “Make My School A Prison”Thursday May 26, 2011 –Consider the life of a Michigan prisoner. They get three square meals a day, access to free health care, Internet, cable television, access to a library, access to weight rooms, and access to computer labs. While in prison they can earn a degree. Convicts get a roof over their heads and clothing. Everything we just listed we DO NOT provide to our school children.We treat our prisoners better than we treat our school children. The State of Michigan spends annually somewhere between $30,000 and $40,000 per prisoner, yet we are struggling to provide schools with $7,000 per student. I guess we need to treat our students like they are prisoners, with equal funding. Please give my students three meals a day. Please give my children access to free health care. Please provide my school district Internet access and computers. Please put books in my library. Please give my students a weight room so they can be big and strong.

We provide all of these things to prisoners because they have constitutional rights. What about the rights of our youth, who represent our future? You’d think we’d to more to secure the future of our own students. Instead, we keep hammering the educational institutions to do their jobs better with less money. It would be nice if our prisoners could start living a little leaner and with fewer resources.—Nathan Bootz, Letter to Michigan Governor Rick Snyder

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Why I Changed My Mind About School Reform—The current emphasis on accountability has created a punitive atmosphere in the schools. The Obama administration seems to think that schools will improve if we fire teachers and close schools. They do not recognize that schools are often the anchor of their communities, representing values, traditions and ideals that have persevered across decades. They also fail to recognize that the best predictor of low academic performance is poverty—not bad teachers. What we need is not a marketplace, but a coherent curriculum that prepares all students. And our government should commit to providing a good school in every neighborhood in the nation, just as we strive to provide a good fire company in every community.On our present course, we are disrupting communities, dumbing down our schools, giving students false reports of their progress, and creating a private sector that will undermine public education without improving it.

Most significantly, we are not producing a generation of students who are more knowledgable, and better prepared for the responsibilities of citizenship. That is why I changed my mind about the current direction of school reform. Wall Street Journal

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Free Shaquanda Cotton

Shaquanda Cotton, 14-year-old black freshman,  shoved a 58-year- old teacher’s aide at Paris High School (Texas) in a dispute over entering   the building before the school day had officially begun. She was  tried in March 2006 in the town’s juvenile court, convicted of   “assault on a public servant” and sentenced by Judge Chuck Superville to prison for up to 7 years, until she turns 21. . . . Backward Glance -- Paris, Texas is the home of the Paris Fairgrounds, a stage where  thousands of white ’spectators’ would gather to burn and lynch  blacks as if at some sort of carnival. freeshaquandacotton  contact 

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Seven-Year-Old Black Child Arrested, Cuffed, Fingerprinted

in Baltimore, a City with a Black Mayor, Sheila Dixon

“I am very concerned about what I am hearing. As a mother and as a parent, I am bothered by it,” she said.

“I will get to the bottom of this.”

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Supreme Courts Halts Racial Integration—“The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race,” he said. His side of the debate, the chief justice said, was “more faithful to the heritage of Brown,” the landmark 1954 decision that declared school segregation unconstitutional. “When it comes to using race to assign children to schools, history will be heard,” Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. . . . While Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas and Samuel A. Alito Jr. joined his opinion on the schools case in full, the fifth member of the majority, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, did not. . . . Justice Kennedy said achieving racial diversity, “avoiding racial isolation” and addressing “the problem of de facto resegregation in schooling” were “compelling interests” that a school district could constitutionally pursue as long as it did so through programs that were sufficiently “narrowly tailored.” . . . “It is not often in the law that so few have so quickly changed so much,” Justice Breyer said. . . . “This is a decision that the court and the nation will come to regret.” . . . Justices John Paul Stevens, David H. Souter and Ruth Bader Ginsburg signed Justice Breyer’s opinion. Justice Stevens wrote a dissenting opinion of his own, as pointed as it was brief.  Linda Greenhouse. Justices Limit the Use of Race in School Plans for Integration. NYTimes


Up from Slavery

A Documentary History of Negro Education (Table)

Newspaper Clippings & Other Archival Documents

In 1883, U.S Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unlawful.

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Students at the Center (SAC) is an independent program that since 1996 has worked within public schools in New Orleans. The students of SAC participate through English and elective writing and social studies classes in their schools. We teach both regular and advanced core curriculum classes that are open to all students. In addition to the daily classes, since Hurricane Katrina, SAC graduates have worked as key staff members, serving as resource teachers in public school classrooms, organizers for youth involvement, and producers of youth media. SACnola

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On the Train, Tap Dancing to Pay for College—Kristofer Rios—4 March 2012—Since he enrolled at Pennsylvania State University, Mr. Johnson, 20, a Harlem native, has helped support himself through his studies in business marketing with the donations he receives during his weekend performances in the New York City subways. . . . Six years of tapping on the subway has taught Mr. Johnson that a little groove goes a long way. His trademark is a hip-hop-infused backbeat that bookends improvised elements of his tap step. “When I tap it’s literally an instrument, and I use this instrument to relate to the people on the train,” Mr. Johnson said. “No matter who you are, you can understand a groove.” His technique is effective. After a successful day of work, Mr. Johnson can earn as much as $200, twice the amount he makes working at the clothing store. (Performing and soliciting donations on a train, is, of course, illegal, though that hardly stops anyone determined to try to make a buck or two.) For Mr. Johnson the work is hard and takes him away from class work. “Almost every weekend I come back to the city, which cuts into my study time, and it’s hard on me mentally and physically.” he said.

“Josh is not looking for a handout or even a hand-up,” said Ramon Ray, a family friend who lives in New Jersey and is one of Mr. Johnson’s mentors. “He’s just working hard to graduate from college and rise out of this.”nytimes 

Joshua Johnson Tap Dancing on NYC Trains to Pay for College

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A Dream Deferred: A Mournful, Contrarian Dissection

Of the Failed Legacy of Brown v. Board of Education

A Review by Debra J. Dickerson May/June 2004 Issue

Charles J. Ogletree Jr. All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half-Century of Brown v. Board of Education   Norton, 2005


Derrick Bell. Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform.  Oxford University Press, 2005

Carter Godwin Woodson. The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861: A History of the Education of the Colored People of the United States from the Beginning of Slavery to the Civil War (2007)

Sonya Ramsey. Reading, Writing, and Segregation: A Century of Black Women Teachers in Nashville (2008)

The Editors of Black Issues in Higher Education. The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education (2004)

Thurgood Marshall. Thurgood Marshall: His Speeches, Writings, Arguments, Opinions, and Reminiscences (2001)

Juan Williams. Thurgood Marshall, Revolutionary (2000)

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The Intellect of the Negro Is  Discussed, 1835

It is the popular opinion, both at the north and south, that the negro is inferior in intellect to the white man. This opinion is not, however, founded upon just experience. The African intellect has never been developed. Individuals, indeed, have been educated, whose acquirements certainly reflect honour upon the race. Uneducated negroes have also exhibited indications of strong intellectual vigour. And because, in both instances, the negro has shown himself still inferior to the white man, he is unhesitatingly pronounced an inferior being, irremediably so, in the estimation of his judges, by the operation of organic laws. . . .

This is mere theory, but it is theory based upon the operation of laws whose general principles cannot be controverted: and when the negro, by the emancipation of his species, has opportunity for the culture of his own mind-which, if he is disposed to neglect, the philanthropist will nor be-a few generations will leave no traces of those mental shackles, which, like chains loaded upon the body, have so long borne him down to a level with the brute. Till time proves this original equi-mental organization of the white man and the negro, which opinion fact has been strengthening for two or three generations in individual instances, it is due, both to philanthropy and justice, to suspend the sentence which condemns him as a being less than man.The South-West. By a Yankee [Joseph Holt Ingraham] (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1835), II, 198-200.

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The Birmingham Children's March started on May 2, 1963. Flyers had been distributed in black schools and neighborhoods that said, "Fight for freedom first then go to school" and "It's up to you to free our teachers, our parents, yourself, and our country."

On May 2, more than a thousand students skipped school and gathered at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. Demonstrators marched to the downtown area, to meet with the Mayor, and integrate the chosen buildings. More than 1,200 children were arrested the first day in a demonstration that received national attention.


Photo: May 4, 1963.See More—in Birmingham, Alabama

Teachers can request a free copy of the excellent film, The Children’s March, from Teaching Tolerance: For more resources for "teaching outside the textbook" about the Civil Rights Movement, check out this list from the Zinn Education Project website: / More about the march on the King Papers Project website: Stanford.Childrens_Crusade/

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How Christian Fundamentalists Plan to Teach Genocide to Schoolchildren—Katherine Stewart—02 June 12—"In Rwanda in 1994, Hutu preachers invoked King Saul's memory to justify the total slaughter of their Tutsi neighbors," writes Professor Philip Jenkins in his 2011 book, Laying Down the Sword: Why We Can't Ignore the Bible's Violent Verses (HarperCollins).

This fall, more than 100,000 American public school children, ranging in age from four to 12, are scheduled to receive instruction in the lessons of Saul and the Amalekites in the comfort of their own public school classrooms. The instruction, which features in the second week of a weekly "Bible study" course, will come from the Good News Club, an after-school program sponsored by a group called the Child Evangelism Fellowship (CEF). The aim of the CEF is to convert young children to a fundamentalist form of the Christian faith and recruit their peers to the club.

There are now over 3,200 clubs in public elementary schools, up more than sevenfold since the 2001 supreme court decision, Good News Club v Milford Central School, effectively required schools to include such clubs in their after-school programing.

The CEF has been teaching the story of the Amalekites [1 Samuel (15:3)] at least since 1973. In its earlier curriculum materials, CEF was euphemistic about the bloodshed, saying simply that "the Amalekites were completely defeated." In the most recent version of the curriculum, however, the group is quite eager to drive the message home to its elementary school students. The first thing the curriculum makes clear is that if God gives instructions to kill a group of people, you must kill every last one: "You are to go and completely destroy the Amalekites (AM-uh-leck-ites)—people, animals, every living thing. Nothing shall be left."—guardian

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8 Reasons Young Americans Don't Fight Back: How the US Crushed  Youth Resistance

What to Do about Declining Student Empathy  / Education and the Structural Crisis of Capital

Unconscious Plagiarism  / The Myth of Charter Schools (Diane Ravitch)

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Arizona gov. signs bill targeting ethnic studiesThe measure signed Tuesday prohibits classes that advocate ethnic solidarity, that are designed primarily for students of a particular race or that promote resentment toward a certain ethnic group.The Tucson Unified School District program offers specialized courses in African-American, Mexican-American and Native-American studies that focus on history and literature and include information about the influence of a particular ethnic group. For example, in the Mexican-American Studies program, an American history course explores the role of Hispanics in the Vietnam War, and a literature course emphasizes Latino authors. Horne, a Republican running for attorney general, said the program promotes "ethnic chauvinism" and racial resentment toward whites while segregating students by race. He's been trying to restrict it ever since he learned that Hispanic civil rights activist Dolores Huerta told students in 2006 that "Republicans hate Latinos."YahooNews

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Survey: Nigerians Most Educated in the U.S.— Naeesa Aziz—20 March 2012—According to 2006 census data, 37 percent of Nigerians in the U.S. had bachelor's degrees, 17 percent held master's degrees and 4 percent had doctorates. In contrast, the same census data showed only 19 percent of white Americans had bachelor’s degrees, 8 percent held master’s degrees and only 1 percent held doctorates, the paper reports. The census data was bolstered by an independent analysis of 13 annual Houston-area surveys conducted by Rice University and commissioned by the Chronicle. "These are higher levels of educational attainment than were found in any other . . . community," Stephen Klineberg, a sociologist at Rice University who conducts the annual Houston Area Survey, told the paper.

However, despite the strides in education made by many African immigrants, including Nigerian-Americans, discrimination still colors their prospects for employment. A study of 2010 employment data by the Economic Policy Institute showed that, across nationalities and ethnic groups, Black immigrants carried the highest unemployment rate of all foreign-born

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#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
#2 - Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree
#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
#4 - Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper
#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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American Grown: The Story

of the White House Kitchen Garden and Gardens Across America

By Michelle Obama

In the book's introduction, Obama reflects on her own active childhood and how a generational shift toward a more sedentary lifestyle inspired her to change the way she fed her family. Chapters on the seasons follow, beginning with spring and the history of White House gardens and those who contributed. This chapter also covers planning, plantings and people who maintain the garden and prepare the bounty. It's the only chapter that offers significant gardening advice on topics such as soil amendments, composting, climate and pests, but it will appear perfunctory to any experienced gardener. The remaining chapterssummer, fall and winterrevolve around themes such as growing community, sharing the harvest and building foundations, and more emphasis is placed on the programs and initiatives that the garden inspires than the garden itself.

This is the heart of the book, and it's obvious that Obama's objective is spreading the word about these efforts, not growing tomatoes. . . . The back of the book contains . . . recipes from White House chefs featuring produce from each season with corresponding growing tips.

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It's The Middle Class Stupid!

By James Carville and Stan Greenberg

It’s the Middle Class, Stupid! confirms what we have all suspected: Washington and Wall Street have really screwed things up for the average American. Work has been devalued. Education costs are out of sight. Effort and ambition have never been so scantily rewarded. Political guru James Carville and pollster extraordinaire Stan Greenberg argue that our political parties must admit their failures and the electorate must reclaim its voice, because taking on the wealthy and the privileged is not class warfare—it is a matter of survival. Told in the alternating voices of these two top political strategists, It’s the Middle Class, Stupid! provides eye-opening and provocative arguments on where our government—including the White House—has gone wrong, and what voters can do about it. 

Controversial and outspoken, authoritative and shrewd, It’s the Middle Class, Stupid! is destined to make waves during the 2012 presidential campaign, and will set the agenda for legislative battles and political dust-ups during the next administration.

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Captain of the Planter: The Story of Robert Smalls

By Dorothy Sterling

Dorothy Sterling’s biography of Robert Smalls is Captain of the Planter: The Story of Robert Smalls (Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1958). In most history books, the contributions of Negroes during the Civil War and Reconstructions are ignored. Robert Smalls was one of the heroes who is rarely mentioned. He was a Negro slave who stole a ship from the Confederates, served on it with the Union Army with distinction, and finally served several terms in Congress.

All this was accomplished against the handicaps first of slavery, then of the prejudice of the Union Army, and finally of the Jim Crow laws, which eventually conquered him. Besides its value in contradicting the history book insinuation that the Negro was incapable of political enterprise and that the South was right in imposing Jim Crow laws, Captain of the Planter is an exciting adventure story. Captain Smalls’ escape from slavery and his battle exploits make interesting reading, and the style is fast moving.—Barbara Dodds

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The Death and Life of the Great American School System

How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education

By Diane Ravitch

As an education historian and former assistant secretary of education, Ravitch has witnessed the trends in public education over the past 40 years and has herself swung from public-school advocate to market-driven accountability and choice supporter back to public-school advocate. With passion and insight, she analyzes research and draws on interviews with educators, philanthropists, and business executives to question the current direction of reform of public education. In the mid-1990s, the movement to boost educational standards failed on political concerns; next came the emphasis on accountability with its reliance on standardized testing. Now educators are worried that the No Child Left Behind mandate that all students meet proficiency standards by 2014 will result in the dismantling of public schools across the nation. Ravitch analyzes the impact of choice on public schools, attempts to quantify quality teaching, and describes the data wars with advocates for charter and traditional public schools.

Ravitch also critiques the continued reliance on a corporate model for school reform and the continued failure of such efforts to emphasize curriculum. Conceding that there is no single solution, Ravitch concludes by advocating for strong educational values and revival of strong neighborhood public schools. For readers on all sides of the school-reform debate, this is a very important book.—Vanessa Bush   

The Myth of Charter Schools  /  Why I Changed My Mind About School Reform

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Whatever It Takes

Geoffrey Canada's Quest to Change Harlem and America

By Paul Tough

What would it take? That was the question that Geoffrey Canada found himself asking. What would it take to change the lives of poor children—not one by one, through heroic interventions and occasional miracles, but in big numbers, and in a way that could be replicated nationwide? The question led him to create the Harlem Children's Zone, a ninety-seven-block laboratory in central Harlem where he is testing new and sometimes controversial ideas about poverty in America. His conclusion: if you want poor kids to be able to compete with their middle-class peers, you need to change everything in their lives—their schools, their neighborhoods, even the child-rearing practices of their parents. Whatever It Takes is a tour de force of reporting, an inspired portrait not only of Geoffrey Canada but also of the parents and children in Harlem who are struggling to better their lives, often against great odds. Carefully researched and deeply affecting, this is a dispatch from inside the most daring and potentially transformative social experiment of our time.

Paul Tough is an editor at the New York Times Magazine and one of America's foremost writers on poverty, education, and the achievement gap. His reporting on Geoffrey Canada and the Harlem Children's Zone originally appeared as a Times Magazine cover story. He lives with his wife in New York City.

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No University Is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom

By Cary Nelson

No University Is an Island offers a comprehensive account of the social, political, and cultural forces undermining academic freedom. At once witty and devastating, it confronts these threats with exceptional frankness, then offers a prescription for higher education's renewal. In an insider's account of how the primary organization for faculty members nationwide has fought the culture wars, Cary Nelson, the current President of the American Association of University Professors, unveils struggles over governance and unionization and the increasing corporatization of higher education. Peppered throughout with previously unreported, and sometimes incendiary, higher education anecdotes, Nelson is at his flame-throwing best. The book calls on higher education's advocates of both the Left and the Right to temper conviction with tolerance and focus on higher education's real injustices. Nelson demands we stop denying teachers, student workers, and other employees a living wage and basic rights. He urges unions to take up the larger cause of justice. And he challenges his own and other academic organizations to embrace greater democracy. Q&A with Cary Nelson

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The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935

By James D. Anderson

James Anderson critically reinterprets the history of southern black education from Reconstruction to the Great Depression. By placing black schooling within a political, cultural, and economic context, he offers fresh insights into black commitment to education, the peculiar significance of Tuskegee Institute, and the conflicting goals of various philanthropic groups, among other matters. Initially, ex-slaves attempted to create an educational system that would support and extend their emancipation, but their children were pushed into a system of industrial education that presupposed black political and economic subordination. This conception of education and social order—supported by northern industrial philanthropists, some black educators, and most southern school officials—conflicted with the aspirations of ex-slaves and their descendants, resulting at the turn of the century in a bitter national debate over the purposes of black education. Because blacks lacked economic and political power, white elites were able to control the structure and content of black elementary, secondary, normal, and college education during the first third of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, blacks persisted in their struggle to develop an educational system in accordance with their own needs and desires.

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What Orwell Didn't Know

Propaganda and the New Face of American Politics

By Andras Szanto

Propaganda. Manipulation. Spin. Control. It has ever been thus—or has it? On the eve of the 60th anniversary of George Orwell's classic essay on propaganda (Politics and the English Language), writers have been invited to explore what Orwell didn't—or couldn't—know. Their responses, framed in pithy, focused essays, range far and wide: from the effect of television and computing, to the vast expansion of knowledge about how our brains respond to symbolic messages, to the merger of journalism and entertainment, to lessons learned during and after a half-century of totalitarianism. Together, they paint a portrait of a political culture in which propaganda and mind control are alive and well (albeit in forms and places that would have surprised Orwell). The pieces in this anthology sound alarm bells about the manipulation and misinformation in today's politics, and offer guideposts for a journalism attuned to Orwellian tendencies in the 21st century.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 2 June 2012