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Under the direction of Sam Checote, Cow Tom,  Harry Island and others would have to

be abreast of all goings on, as these mixed blood Creeks were determined to remove

all traces of black people from their nation.

 

 

Sam Checote

Creek Indian Chief

 

In 1819 in Alabama, a boy was born to a man and wife who were full blood Creek Indians. His name was Sam Checote and at an early age he came under the influence of a pioneer of Methodism in Indian Territory, "Uncle" John Harrell. Sam Checote preached, until forbidden by the Creek Council under a law carrying a penalty of 50 lashes on the bare back. Checote fled the territory and sent appeals to Chief McIntosh until the law was revoked. In 1852 he joined the Indian Mission Conference of the  Methodist Episcopal Church South and preached until the time of the Civil War. After the war, he was a preacher, circuit rider and presiding elder in the Indian Mission. In 1872 he was elected Chief of the Creek Nation, where he served 12 years. He was elected as a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference of Methodism, held in London in 1881, but he could not attend due to illness. He died in 1884, and was buried near Okmulgee. His people called him their Great Chief, describing him as "gentle as a child, as courageous as a lion."

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Cow Tom was to have enemies among him however, since the Confederate Creeks had returned. Under the direction of Sam Checote, Cow Tom,  Harry Island and others would have to be abreast of all goings on, as these mixed blood Creeks were determined to remove all traces of black people from their nation. Their belief was in a racial superiority, and their influence was strong. Cow Tom, along with Ketch Barnett, and Harry Island had to make a trip to Washington, unknown to their Creek brethren to insure that their people would be treated fairly and included in benefits extended to the citizens of the Nation. 

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In March of 1867, payments began to the Creek citizens who remained Loyal to the Union in the Civil War.  Dunn, and Indian agent prepared a roll of the Negro Creeks, entitled to receive payments. Sam Checote tried to exclude the blacks, and immediately Harry Island went to Washington to protest.  He was accompanied on this trip by Cow Tom and Ketch Barnett.  Harry Island is remembered for his skills as a negotiator, and is remembered with reverence by the Freedmen and descendants of Freedmen. During his lifetime, he was able to secure the placement of the African Creeks in the nation.

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AALBC.com's 25 Best Selling Books


 

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#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
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#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
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#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

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#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created

By Charles C. Mann

I’m a big fan of Charles Mann’s previous book 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, in which he provides a sweeping and provocative examination of North and South America prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus. It’s exhaustively researched but so wonderfully written that it’s anything but exhausting to read. With his follow-up, 1493, Mann has taken it to a new, truly global level. Building on the groundbreaking work of Alfred Crosby (author of The Columbian Exchange and, I’m proud to say, a fellow Nantucketer), Mann has written nothing less than the story of our world: how a planet of what were once several autonomous continents is quickly becoming a single, “globalized” entity.

Mann not only talked to countless scientists and researchers; he visited the places he writes about, and as a consequence, the book has a marvelously wide-ranging yet personal feel as we follow Mann from one far-flung corner of the world to the next. And always, the prose is masterful. In telling the improbable story of how Spanish and Chinese cultures collided in the Philippines in the sixteenth century, he takes us to the island of Mindoro whose “southern coast consists of a number of small bays, one next to another like tooth marks in an apple.” We learn how the spread of malaria, the potato, tobacco, guano, rubber plants, and sugar cane have disrupted and convulsed the planet and will continue to do so until we are finally living on one integrated or at least close-to-integrated Earth. Whether or not the human instigators of all this remarkable change will survive the process they helped to initiate more than five hundred years ago remains, Mann suggests in this monumental and revelatory book, an open question.

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 2 March 2012

 

 

 

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 Related files: Cow Tom  Narrative of Richard Franklin