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Arturo Schomburg --Benjamin Quarles

Education & History Index




Arturo Schomburg, born in Puerto Rico, he began early to take an active interest in Negro literature and art. While engaged in various occupations he painstakingly assembled a collection of rare manuscripts, first editions and prints, some of which went back to the earliest settlements on the American continents. In 1926, his collection, then considered one of the most complete of its kind, was purchased by the Carnegie Foundation and presented to the Public Library. In 1927, he won a bronze medal and one hundred dollars from the Harmon Foundation for outstanding work in the field of education. More Schomberg


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Benjamin Arthur Quarles (1904-1996), a progressive historian,, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His father was a subway porter. He himself worked as a bellhop on Boston-based steamboats and Florida hotels. He alter enrolled in Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina and then obtained his graduate education at the University of Wisconsin. His dissertation topic was the life of abolitionist Frederick Douglass. This dissertation undoubtedly was the basis for his first published historical work Frederick Douglass (1948).

His doctorate awarded in 1940, Quarles was employed by Dillard University from 1939 to 1953. From about 1948, Dr. Quarles was the dean of the Dillard faculty. more Quarles

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AfroDemics--Individualistic & Isolated The Rise of the Black Nerd by James Hannaham



     Baltimore's Old Slave Markets  

     Baltimore Historical Black Churches

     Black Baltimore History     

Birth of Encarta Africana by Henry Louis Gates


Blacks In Higher Education: An Endangered Species  by Manning  Marable


Benjamin Quarles


     Christian Reports to Quarles  

     The Negro in the American Revolution


     A Bibliography of Bibliographies

     A Bibliography of the Negro (1928) by Monroe Work (Sociologist 1866-1945)

     A Carter G. Woodson Bibliography

     Cuban BookList

     Rhonda Miller/Chuck Siler Bibliography  

A Bibliography of the Negro (1928) by Monroe Work (Sociologist 1866-1945)

     Monroe Work Intro

     Monroe Work Preface   

     Table of Contents  

Carnegie & Librarians & Philanthropists

     Anson Phelps Stokes

     Carnegie Sketch

     Carnegie Table

     Chronology of Events in Black Librarianship 

     Introduction By  R.R. Bowker      

     Method of  Giving Tuskegee Library

     Monroe Work Preface  

     Tuskegee Library, Carnegie, & R.R. Taylor

Chancellor Williams &  Oggi Ogburn

Chandra Manning

      Can Soldiers Tell Us Anything about Lincoln?

Cornell West

     Cornell West  Abandons Harvard & Moves to Princeton 

     Cornel West: An Editorial  

     Pass the Mic Tour

     West Cites Reason For Quitting   

The Defeat of the Great Black Hope   by Maurice R. Berube   (On Muhammad Ali)

A Documentary History of Negro Education compiled by Rudolph Lewis


The Du Bois-Malcolm-King Political Action Forum Index


Fraternal Lodges


Frederick Douglass

     Douglass' 1845 Narrative

     What To The Slave Is 4th of July?


It’s That Time Again by Van G. Garrett


Jacob H. Carruthers Scholar and Educator


Joel A. Rogers


     Hitler and the Negro

     On J. A. Rogers' "Hitler and the Negro"


A Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial 


Marcus Garvey


     George S. Schuyler Again

     Some New Light on the Garvey Movement

Mississippi Freedom Summer 1965 & Its 30 Schools

National Bar Association Denounces Bush's Fight Against Educational Diversity


The Negro Press in the United States by Floyd L. Calvin


Psychology  of Reading by William Henry Gray


R.R. Moton and  The Commission on Interracial Cooperation

Finding a Way out of Lynching & Racial Violence

Stuart Doyle

     Fraternal Lodges Developing & Expanding the Village in Rural Southern Virginia

Table for the Education History of the Negro

Theodore W. Allen and His Insights

Thomas Jefferson and His Negro Family by Madison J. Gray

Thomas Wyatt Turner (1877-1978) Biologist, Educator, and Catholic Activist; Professor


What To The Slave Is 4th of July?  1852 Speech by Frederick Douglass

W.E.B. Du Bois

    Du Bois' Letter to Yolande 1958 

    Du Bois Speaks to Africa  Delivered to the All-African Congress in 1958


William Syphax: A Pioneer in Negro Education in the District of Columbia

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Related files


Atlanta Exposition Address 

Bassett On Washington 

Black Education  

Black Education and Afro-Pessimism

Black Educators Organize Flood Relief

Booker T & Charles Elliot  

Carlyle Van Thompson Interview    

The Dropout Challenge 

The Importance of an African Centered Education

Joyce King Commentary 

The "Last Darky": Bert Williams 

Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance     

The Omni-Americans      

Ten Vital Principles for Black Education   

Unforgivable Blackness       

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Wreck of the Henrietta Marie --The University of Richmond exhibits artifacts from the Henrietta Marie, a 1699 English merchant slave ship. Discovered by divers in 1972 and fully excavated in 1983, the English merchant slave ship Henrietta Marie is believed to be the world's largest source of tangible objects from the early years of the slave trade. Before sinking in 1700 about 35 miles west of Key West, the ship had dropped off 190 captive Africans to be sold as slaves in Jamaica.

“A Slave Ship Speaks: The Wreck of the Henrietta Marie"  continues through May 18 and organized by the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society in Key West, Fla., the exhibit also includes beads, weapons, shackles, iron bars, spoons, bottles and medical supplies recovered from the ship. The sounds of human moans echoed from a CD, playing in tandem with narratives from a former slave and the ship's doctor. Reproduction metal shackles dangled from wooden benches.

 Times Dispatch  / Historical Museum / Museum Exhibits

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Ebony's Fifty Influential Figures in African-American History


Four Greats -- Frederick Douglass / W.E.B. Du Bois / Mary McLeod Bethune

 Martin Luther King, Jr.


Robert S. Abbott     Richard Allen    Louis Armstrong    Ella Baker   James Baldwin  

 Benjamin Banneker    Ida B. Wells-Barnett

 Ralph J. Bunche   George Washington Carver   Martin R. Delany  Charles R. Drew  

 Paul Laurence Dunbar   Edward Kennedy Ellington    Marcus Garvey   

 Prince Hall      Fannie Lou Hamer     W.C. Handy  

Frances E.W. Harper    Charles H. Houston     Langston Hughes    Zora Neale Hurston 

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Socialist Joy in the Writing of Langston Hughes



Statistics on the Inequities  Notes on Political Education   Moratorium on School Closings in Baltimore

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Supreme Court Halts Racial Integration—“The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race,” he said. His side of the debate, the chief justice said, was “more faithful to the heritage of Brown,” the landmark 1954 decision that declared school segregation unconstitutional. “When it comes to using race to assign children to schools, history will be heard,” Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. . . . While Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas and Samuel A. Alito Jr. joined his opinion on the schools case in full, the fifth member of the majority, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, did not. . . . Justice Kennedy said achieving racial diversity, “avoiding racial isolation” and addressing “the problem of de facto resegregation in schooling” were “compelling interests” that a school district could constitutionally pursue as long as it did so through programs that were sufficiently “narrowly tailored.” . . . “It is not often in the law that so few have so quickly changed so much,” Justice Breyer said. . . . “This is a decision that the court and the nation will come to regret.” . . . Justices John Paul Stevens, David H. Souter and Ruth Bader Ginsburg signed Justice Breyer’s opinion. Justice Stevens wrote a dissenting opinion of his own, as pointed as it was brief.  Linda Greenhouse. Justices Limit the Use of Race in School Plans for Integration. NYTimes

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Michigan School Official Begs Governor, “Make My School A Prison”Thursday May 26, 2011 –Consider the life of a Michigan prisoner. They get three square meals a day, access to free health care, Internet, cable television, access to a library, access to weight rooms, and access to computer labs. While in prison they can earn a degree. Convicts get a roof over their heads and clothing. Everything we just listed we DO NOT provide to our school children.We treat our prisoners better than we treat our school children. The State of Michigan spends annually somewhere between $30,000 and $40,000 per prisoner, yet we are struggling to provide schools with $7,000 per student. I guess we need to treat our students like they are prisoners, with equal funding. Please give my students three meals a day. Please give my children access to free health care. Please provide my school district Internet access and computers. Please put books in my library. Please give my students a weight room so they can be big and strong. We provide all of these things to prisoners because they have constitutional rights. What about the rights of our youth, who represent our future? —Nathan Bootz, Letter to Michigan Governor Rick Snyder

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A People’s History of the United States

By Howard Zinn

Consistently lauded for its lively, readable prose, this revised and updated edition of A People’s History of the United States turns traditional textbook history on its head. Howard Zinn infuses the often-submerged voices of blacks, women, American Indians, war resisters, and poor laborers of all nationalities into this thorough narrative that spans American history from Christopher Columbus's arrival to an afterword on the Clinton presidency. Addressing his trademark reversals of perspective, Zinn—a teacher, historian, and social activist for more than 20 years—explains, "My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia. It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. . . ."

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Definition of Negro 1910-1911

Excerpts Compiled

By Baffour Amankwatia II [Asa G. Hilliard III]

(22 August 1933-13 August 2007)


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Recollections of Ivan Van Sertima—The Early Years

By Runoko Rashidi


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Basil Davidson's  "Africa Series"

 Different But Equal  /  Mastering A Continent  /  Caravans of Gold  / The King and the City / The Bible and The Gun

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Jesse Helms, White Racist –In 1984, when Helms faced his toughest opponent in Democratic Gov. Jim Hunt, the late Bill Peterson, one of the most evenhanded reporters I have ever known, summed up what "some said was the meanest Senate campaign in history." "Racial epithets and standing in school doors are no longer fashionable," Peterson wrote, "but 1984 proved that the ugly politics of race are alive and well. Helms is their master."

A year before the election, when public polls showed Helms trailing by 20 points, he launched a Senate filibuster against the bill making the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. a national holiday. Thurmond and the Senate majority were on the other side, but the next poll showed Helms had halved his deficit. All year, Peterson reported, "Helms campaign literature sounded a drumbeat of warnings about black voter-registration drives. . . .

On election eve, he accused Hunt of being supported by 'homosexuals, the labor union bosses and the crooks' and said he feared a large 'bloc vote.' What did he mean? 'The black vote,' Helms said." He won, 52 percent to 48 percent. In 1990, locked in a tight race with an African American Democrat, former Charlotte mayor Harvey Gantt, Helms aired a final-week TV ad that showed a pair of white hands crumpling a rejection letter, while an announcer said, "You needed that job and you were the best qualified. But they had to give it to a minority because of a racial quota." Once again, he pulled through. That is not a history to be sanitized. WashingtonPost

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The State of African Education (April 200)

Attack On Africans Writing Their Own History Part 1 of 7

Dr Asa Hilliard III speaks on the assault of academia on Africans writing and accounting for their own history.

Dr Hilliard is A teacher, psychologist, and historian.

Part 2 of 7  /  Part 3 of 7  / Part 4 of 7  / Part 5 of 7 / Part 6 of 7  /  Part 7 of 7

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Women's History: Mary Fields First African American Woman  Mail Carrier with the United States

Mary Fields, also known as Stagecoach Mary, was the first African-American woman employed as a mail carrier in the United States, driving her mail route by stagecoach from Cascade, Montana to St. Peter's Mission, Montana. She was only the second American woman in all to work for the United States Postal Service. Born a slave circa 1832 in Hickman County, Tennessee (the exact year of her birth is uncertain) she was freed when American slavery was outlawed in 1865. For some time she worked repairing the buildings of a school for Native American girls in Montana called Saint Peter's Mission, eventually advancing to forewoman. In 1895, although approximately 60 years old, Fields was hired as a mail carrier since she was the fastest job applicant to hitch a team of six horses.

She drove the route with horses and a mule named Moses and never missed a day, earning the nickname "Stagecoach" for her reliability. This was despite heavy snowfalls that sometimes made it necessary for her to deliver the mail on foot, once walking 10 miles back to the depot. hen she retired she became friends with the actor Gary Cooper.

She was a respected public figure in Cascade, and on her birthday each year the town closed its schools to celebrate. She died of liver failure in 1914 when she was a little bit over the age of 80. n the 1996 TV movie The Cherokee Kid, Fields was played by Dawnn Lewis.—Wikipedia

According to some historians, she was owned by Judge Dunn and grew up on his family farm. She became friends with his daughter, Dolly, who was around the same age.Unlike most other African Americans of the time, Mary was taught to read and write.After the Civil War and the emancipation of slaves, many ex-slaves left the plantations and farms of their former owners. Mary, however, stayed with the Dunns. When she did leave, she spent time in Ohio and along the Mississippi River.CascadeMontana

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Captain of the Planter: The Story of Robert Smalls

By Dorothy Sterling

Dorothy Sterling’s biography of Robert Smalls is Captain of the Planter: The Story of Robert Smalls (Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1958). In most history books, the contributions of Negroes during the Civil War and Reconstructions are ignored. Robert Smalls was one of the heroes who is rarely mentioned. He was a Negro slave who stole a ship from the Confederates, served on it with the Union Army with distinction, and finally served several terms in Congress.  All this was accomplished against the handicaps first of slavery, then of the prejudice of the Union Army, and finally of the Jim Crow laws, which eventually conquered him. Besides its value in contradicting the history book insinuation that the Negro was incapable of political enterprise and that the South was right in imposing Jim Crow laws, Captain of the Planter is an exciting adventure story. Captain Smalls’ escape from slavery and his battle exploits make interesting reading, and the style is fast moving.Barbara Dodds

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African American Family Histories at Monticello

"I was born at Monticello...." Peter Fossett, 1898, and Henry Martin, 1914. Over the decades, hundreds could have spoken those words. Below are profiles of a few of those born into slavery at Monticello. For more information about these people, their descendants, and members of other families with ancestral ties to Monticello

   Plantation Database   Monticello Getting Word   Monticello Classroom


Arizona gov. signs bill targeting ethnic studiesThe measure signed Tuesday prohibits classes that advocate ethnic solidarity, that are designed primarily for students of a particular race or that promote resentment toward a certain ethnic group.The Tucson Unified School District program offers specialized courses in African-American, Mexican-American and Native-American studies that focus on history and literature and include information about the influence of a particular ethnic group.

For example, in the Mexican-American Studies program, an American history course explores the role of Hispanics in the Vietnam War, and a literature course emphasizes Latino authors. Horne, a Republican running for attorney general, said the program promotes "ethnic chauvinism" and racial resentment toward whites while segregating students by race. He's been trying to restrict it ever since he learned that Hispanic civil rights activist Dolores Huerta told students in 2006 that "Republicans hate Latinos."YahooNews

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#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
#2 - Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree
#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
#4 - Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper
#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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No University Is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom

By Cary Nelson

No University Is an Island offers a comprehensive account of the social, political, and cultural forces undermining academic freedom. At once witty and devastating, it confronts these threats with exceptional frankness, then offers a prescription for higher education's renewal. In an insider's account of how the primary organization for faculty members nationwide has fought the culture wars, Cary Nelson, the current President of the American Association of University Professors, unveils struggles over governance and unionization and the increasing corporatization of higher education. Peppered throughout with previously unreported, and sometimes incendiary, higher education anecdotes, Nelson is at his flame-throwing best. The book calls on higher education's advocates of both the Left and the Right to temper conviction with tolerance and focus on higher education's real injustices. Nelson demands we stop denying teachers, student workers, and other employees a living wage and basic rights. He urges unions to take up the larger cause of justice. And he challenges his own and other academic organizations to embrace greater democracy. Q&A with Cary Nelson

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The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations

By Ira Berlin

Berlin (Many Thousands Gone) offers a fresh reading of American history through the prism of the great migrations that made and remade African and African American life. The first was the forcible deportation of Africans to North America in the 17th and 18th centuries, followed by their forced transfer into the American interior during the 19th century. Then came the migration of the mid-20th century as African-Americans fled the South for the urban North, and the arrival of continental Africans and people of African descent from the Caribbean during the latter part of the 20th century. Berlin sees migration and the reshaping of communities to their new environments as central to the African-American experience. Movement is a matter of numbers, and Berlin provides them in detail kept fully readable by his attention to the cultural products of the shifts. In particular, he follows the church as it moves, the music as it takes on new themes, and kinship as it broadens. Berlin's careful scholarship is evidenced in his rich notes; the ordinary reader will be pleased by the fluidity and clarity of his prose.—Publishers Weekly

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Salvage the Bones

A Novel by Jesmyn Ward

On one level, Salvage the Bones is a simple story about a poor black family that’s about to be trashed by one of the most deadly hurricanes in U.S. history. What makes the novel so powerful, though, is the way Ward winds private passions with that menace gathering force out in the Gulf of Mexico. Without a hint of pretension, in the simple lives of these poor people living among chickens and abandoned cars, she evokes the tenacious love and desperation of classical tragedy. The force that pushes back against Katrina’s inexorable winds is the voice of Ward’s narrator, a 14-year-old girl named Esch, the only daughter among four siblings. Precocious, passionate and sensitive, she speaks almost entirely in phrases soaked in her family’s raw land. Everything here is gritty, loamy and alive, as though the very soil were animated. Her brother’s “blood smells like wet hot earth after summer rain. . . . His scalp looks like fresh turned dirt.” Her father’s hands “are like gravel,” while her own hand “slides through his grip like a wet fish,” and a handsome boy’s “muscles jabbered like chickens.” Admittedly, Ward can push so hard on this simile-obsessed style that her paragraphs risk sounding like a compost heap, but this isn’t usually just metaphor for metaphor’s sake.

She conveys something fundamental about Esch’s fluid state of mind: her figurative sense of the world in which all things correspond and connect. She and her brothers live in a ramshackle house steeped in grief since their mother died giving birth to her last child. . . . What remains, what’s salvaged, is something indomitable in these tough siblings, the strength of their love, the permanence of their devotion.WashingtonPost

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Midnight Rising

John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War

By Tony Horwitz

Plotted in secret, launched in the dark, John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was a pivotal moment in U.S. history. But few Americans know the true story of the men and women who launched a desperate strike at the slaveholding South. Now, Midnight Rising portrays Brown's uprising in vivid color, revealing a country on the brink of explosive conflict. Brown, the descendant of New England Puritans, saw slavery as a sin against America's founding principles. Unlike most abolitionists, he was willing to take up arms, and in 1859 he prepared for battle at a hideout in Maryland, joined by his teenage daughter, three of his sons, and a guerrilla band that included former slaves and a dashing spy. On October 17, the raiders seized Harpers Ferry, stunning the nation and prompting a counterattack led by Robert E. Lee. After Brown's capture, his defiant eloquence galvanized the North and appalled the South, which considered Brown a terrorist.

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Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President

By Ron Suskind

A new book offering an insider's account of the White House's response to the financial crisis says that U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner ignored an order from President Barack Obama calling for reconstruction of major banks. According to Pulitzer Prize-winning author Ron Suskind, the incident is just one of several in which Obama struggled with a divided group of advisers, some of whom he didn't initially consider for their high-profile roles. Suskind interviewed more than 200 people, including Obama, Geithner and other top officials . . . The book states Geithner and the Treasury Department ignored a March 2009 order to consider dissolving banking giant Citigroup while continuing stress tests on banks, which were burdened with toxic mortgage assets. . . .Suskind states that Obama accepts the blame for mismanagement in his administration while noting that restructuring the financial system was complicated and could have resulted in deeper financial harm. . . . In a February 2011 interview with Suskind, Obama acknowledges another ongoing criticism—that he is too focused on policy and not on telling a larger story, one the public could relate to.

Obama is quoted as saying he was elected in part because "he had connected our current predicaments with the broader arc of American history," but that such a "narrative thread" had been lost.—Gopusa

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Negro Comrades of the Crown

African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. Before Emancipation

By Gerald Horne

Dr. Gerald Horne, professor of History and African American Studies at the University of Houston, said, the American revolt of 1776 against British rule “was basically a successful revolt of racist settlers. It was akin to Rhodesia, in 1965, assuming that Ian Smith and his cabal had triumphed. It was akin to the revolt of the French settlers in Algeria, in the 1950s and 1960s, assuming those French settlers had triumphed.” Dr. Horne explores the racist roots on the American Revolution in his new book, Negroes of the Crown. “It was very difficult to construct a progressive republic in North America after what was basically a racist revolt,” said Horne. “The revolt was motivated in no small part by the fact that abolitionism was growing in London…. This is one of the many reasons more Africans by an order of magnitude fought against the rebels in 1776, than fought alongside them.”In this path-breaking book, Horne rewrites the history of slave resistance by placing it for the first time in the context of military and diplomatic wrangling between Britain and the United States.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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