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Social Justice - When measuring sentencing, enforcement and victimization, black vs. white equality

under law is 68 percent of whites (5 percent less than 2004the worst decline overall.).

Blacks are three times (3X) more likely to become prisoners once arrested and a Black person's

average jail sentence is six months longer than a white's for the same crime; 39 months versus 33 months.



State of Black America 2005



Urge the President and Congress to Create Commission on Economic Opportunity for Jobs and Business Growth

Washington, DC (April 6, 2005)- Equality between blacks and whites in urban America is not improving, and changes in national policies and priorities must be made to help, according to a report released today by The National Urban League, entitled The State of Black America 2005: Prescriptions for Change.

The annual report's Equality Index (a statistical measurement of disparities or equality gaps between blacks and whites in economics, housing, education, health, social justice and civic engagement) revealed that despite societal progress, the overall status of black Americans is just .73 or 73 percent, compared to the conditions of their white counterparts, marginally unchanged from 2004 index results.

After a decade where Black America began to see drops in the unemployment rate and gains in income, the post-9/11 recession is marked by economic stagnation. Although the overall equality index shows that black status remains at 73 percent, the numbers inside the index tell a troubling story in terms of unemployment, income and wealth, said Marc H. Morial, President and CEO, National Urban League.  Our nation must wake up. The growing wealth gap in this country is not just leaving behind Black America, it's leaving behind, the middle class, urban America, rural America and Hispanic America, too. When one community in America suffers, our entire economy suffers. That is why we're recommending specific changes in our national priorities and policies.

Highlights of the Equality Index findings in the five main areas include

1. Economics - Still the largest divide, black economic status measures 57 percent of white counterparts, an equality gap 20 percent wider than any other category. Black unemployment remained stagnant at 10.8 percent while white unemployment dropped to 4.7 percent, making black unemployment more than twice that of whites.

2. Health - Black health status is 76 percent of whites. Obesity rates for blacks are increasing faster and the life expectancy rate for blacks is 72 years vs. 78 years for whites.

3. Education - Black education status is 77 percent of whites. Teachers with less than 3 years experience teach in minority schools at twice the rate that they teach in white schools.

4. Social Justice - When measuring sentencing, enforcement and victimization, black vs. white equality under law is 68 percent of whites (5 percent less than 2004the worst decline overall.). Blacks are three times (3X) more likely to become prisoners once arrested and a Black person's average jail sentence is six months longer than a white's for the same crime; 39 months versus 33 months.

5. Civic Engagement - Blacks out-measure whites in the area of civic engagement (voter registration, volunteerism and government service) at 1.08. However, volunteerism is declining for both blacks and whites, due to an upsurge with the 2004 elections.

Total Equality Index states that Black status is 73% of their white counterparts

What Can Be Done?  For the first time, The 2005 State of Black America report also offers recommendations for specific policies and actions the nation collectively (government, business and communities) should take to stem the backslide of progress. They include:

1. Congress should extend the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which expires in 2007.

2. Raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $7.25 per hour and tie future increases to an objective standard. The minimum wage must be a living wage, not a poverty wage.

3. Close the home ownership gap by lowering down payment requirements and making mortgages more available and affordable to all. Strengthen the Community Reinvestment Act which has helped to guide the banks in this area.

4. Increase Business Development and Entrepreneurship in the African American and other urban communities by doubling the size of the New Markets Tax Credit Program.

5. Strengthen and improve the Community Development Block Grant program and other urban economic opportunity and job training programs. Do not cut nor gut funding.

6. Expand job training and career counseling efforts with a focus on young urban males. Develop a comprehensive re-entry program for ex-felons in need so that they can become working, able citizens and contribute to society. We applaud the Department of Labor's support for the National Urban League's pilot program which is seeking to put young men and women to work in 15 cities across the country through career counseling and job training.

7. Make full day access to quality pre-school education mandatory for every child starting at age three years old. The best way to leave no child behind is to give every child an early and equal start.

8. African Americans must energize their focus on savings, investing and estate planning.

9. African Americans, especially the African American middle class should increase their commitment to civic tithing. Civic tithing means financially supporting as well as giving volunteer time to African American institutions like Historically Black Colleges and Universities, churches, civil rights organizations like the Urban League and more.

The nation cannot reverse the potential backslide of economic progress without changing its focus and priorities. National Urban League President and CEO Marc H. Morial has urged President Bush and the leadership of both parties in Congress as well as the chairpersons of both the Congressional Black Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Caucus to get together to examine and act on policies and programs that will move economic progress forward in all communities. The National Urban League proposes the creation of a bi-partisan Commission on Economic Opportunity for All.

We need members from both parties and both houses of Congress to get together and realize that the responsibility of our nation to provide economic opportunity for all of its citizens is the great civil rights challenge of our time. said Morial in his letter to the President and Congressional members.

Finally, The State of Black America 2005 continues its rich tradition of essays and commentaries focused on economics, wealth, education, health and voting rights from some of America's most prominent thinkers. Dr. Cornel West, Thomas Shapiro, Dianne Pinderhughes, Annelle B. Primm and Marisela B. Gomez, James P. Comer, Martin L. Kilson, Dr. James Lanier, Robert Taylor, David Burnham, Marc H. Morial and Marvin Owens offer their perspectives on why the disparities between blacks and whites persist as well as some compelling solutions to these problems.

For example, Tom Shapiro's essay, The Racial Wealth Gap, discusses the actual widening of the wealth gap. During the recession and jobless recovery, Hispanics and African Americans lost more than 25 percent of their wealth, while the wealth of white families grew slightly for African American families, stock and mutual fund investments plummeted by nearly two-thirds.

The National Urban League is committed to filling the equality gaps through measures such as job training, business development, and educational assistance. For a copy of the State of Black America 2005, visit

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National Urban League (  ) Established in 1910, The Urban League is the nation's oldest and largest community-based movement devoted to empowering African Americans to enter the economic and social mainstream. Today, the National Urban League, headquartered in New York City, spearheads the non-partisan efforts of its local affiliates. There are over 100 local affiliates of the National Urban League located in 35 states and the District of Columbia providing direct services to more than 2 million people nationwide through programs, advocacy and research.


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#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
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#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
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#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

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#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

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#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

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#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


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#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
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#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
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#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label 'trafficked' does not accurately describe migrants' lives and that the 'rescue industry' serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. "Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality."—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 24 February 2012




Home   Religion & Politics   The Du Bois-Malcolm-King 

Related files:  State of the Dream  White Privilege Shapes the U.S.   State Of Black America   state of black nation 2005   The State of the Dream 2005     Myths of Low-Wage Workers      Skip Gates and the Talented Fifth 

 Responses to Skip Gates  The State of HBCUs   The State of Black Journalism   Press Release from United for a Fair Economy