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Toussaint Chronology

including Ogé, Boukmann, Christophe, Dessalines

 

 

Toussaint                                                                                                                                       Christophe

 

 

Books about Toussaint and the Haitian Revolution

Hubert Cole. Christophe: King of Haiti. New York: The Viking Press, 1967.

C.L.R. James. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938)

Edourad Gissant. Caribbean Doscourse (2004)  /  Barbara Harlow. Resistance Literature (1987)

Josaphat B. Kubayanda. The Poet's Africa: Africanness in the Poetry of Nicolas Guillen and Aime Cesaire (1990)

 

Paul Laraque and Jack Hirschman.  Open Gate An Anthology of Haitian Creole Poetry (2001)

David P. Geggus, ed. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World.  University of South Carolina Press, 2001.

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Toussaint Chronology

including Ogé, Boukmann, Christophe, Dessalines

 

 

1492 December: Columbus lands on the island which the Cribs call "Ahiti" and which he names
Española
1630 Buccaneers seize the off-lying island of Tortuga.
1664 France extends her protection to the buccaneers, who have moved on to the mainland of
Española, which they call Saint-Domingue
1697 Spain, at the Peace of Ryswick, recognizes France's claim to the western part of
Saint-Domingue
1743 Toussaint born into slavery on the Bréda plantation in Saint-Domingue
1767 October 6: Henry Christophe born on the British-held island of Grenada
1777 Toussaint freed at thirty-four by his owner Bayon de Libertad
Soon after his liberation, Toussaint married Suzanne Simone Baptiste, former mistress of a freed mulatto called Seraphim Clerc by whom she had a child, Placide. Suzanne bore Toussaint two sons, Isaac and Saint Jean
1787 May: Thomas Clarkson forms the Committee for the Suppression of the Slave Trade
November: Louis XVI of France promises to summon Estates General
1788 February: Brissot forms a similar society in France: Les Amis des Noirs. Members include
 Lafayette, Mirabeau, Robespierre.
March: Colons of Saint-Domingue petition the King for right to send deputies to the Estates General
July: Colonial Committee founded in France by absentee planters
September: Colonial Committee demands right of colonial representation in Estates
General
December: Planters in Saint-Domingue draw up cahier of grievances seeking greater
autonomy
1789 January: People of color petition for full rights in Saint-Domingue
June: Revolutionary committees active at Port-au-Prince and in other towns of the colony
June 20: Colonial Committee joins the Third Estate on day of Tennis Court Oath
July 14: Storming of the Bastille in France
August 26: Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizens drawn up in France
September: French Assembly grants a Colonial Assembly to Saint-Domingue. Colons of
Saint-Domingue, fearing reforms in favor of colored population, demand and receive right to form a Colonial Assembly
October: People of Color address French Assembly, claiming Rights of Man
November: Widespread persecution of people of color begin in Saint-Domingue
December: French Assembly rejects claims of people of color
1790 March 8: Decree of French Assembly leaves question of rights of people of color to Colonial Assembly in Saint-Domingue
March: Two regiments from France incite local troops to mutiny. Port-au-Prince falls to the revolutionaries. First major revolt of people of color.
April 15: First Colonial Assembly meets
May: Colonial Assembly issues a constitution giving itself sweeping powers. This act prompts civil war between royal officials and colonists. Colonial Assembly declares itself accountable to the King alone.
August: Colonial Assembly forcibly dissolved by government troops
October 12: French government officially dissolved Colonial Assembly
October 28: Ogé rebellion -- leads unsuccessful mulatto rising -- in Saint-Domingue
1791 February: Ogé, Chavannes and other executed.
March: Military reinforcements from France mutiny and join colonists
May 15: French Assembly grants full equality to people of color born of free parents.
National Assembly declares all freeborn colored men eligible for Colonial Assembly
August 9: New Colonial Assembly meets and rejects May Decree
August 22: Massive slave revolt in the North led by Boukman
September: Mulattos and whites of West Province join forces against revolutionaries and rebel slaves
Toussaint joins rebel slaves
September 24: May Decree rescinded by French Assembly
November: News that National Assembly reversed its decision, leaving status of mulattos and free Negroes to discretion of Colonial Assemblies. Confederation of whites and mulattos in West Province breaks up in violence.
November 21: Petits blancs massacre people of color in Port-au-Prince
November 29: Three Civil Commissioners Mirbeck, Roume, and Saint Léger arrive at Le Cap in Saint-Domingue
December: Jean-Francois, Biassou and other slave leaders (among them Toussaint) offer submission in return for their freedom and better conditions for their followers. Colonial Assembly refuses to deal with them. Civil Commissioners fail to come to terms with rebel slaves.
1792 March: Mulattos in West Province enlist Black slaves against the whites
April: National Assembly again reverses decision, decrees equality for all freeborn men irrespective of color
May: War commences between French Saint-Domingue and Spanish Santo Domingo.
September 18: Three new Commissioners  along with Sonthonax arrive in Saint-Domingue to enforce April Decree
October 12: Commissioners dissolve Colonial Assembly and assume full control over colony.
1793 January 21: Louis XVI executed.
February: Frances declares war on Britain
May: Rioting at Le Cap, which is ravaged by fire
June 19-20: Petits blancs revolt against Commissioners fails
July: Christophe marries Marie-Louise Coidavid
August 29: Sonthonax, on his own authority, proclaims slave emancipation
September 3: Royalists (Colons) of South Province in Saint-Domingue request English intervention and put themselves and their property under the protection of George III
September 19: British expeditionary forces land in Saint-Domingue
December: Toussaint's army occupies central Haiti after a series of victories.
1794 February 4: French Assembly officially abolishes slavery
May 6: Toussaint deserts the Spanish to join the French
June: Sonthonax and other Commisioners return to France. Colony almost entirely taken over by Britain and Spain
October: Williamson, Governor of Jamaica, appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the British-held parts of Saint-Domingue
1795 Toussaint's army drives the Spanish from Saint-Domingue
July: Spain surrenders her part of the island to France by the Treaty of Bâle.
1796 March 20: People of color, led by Villate, revolt against General Laveaux. Toussaint
rescues Laveaux and crushes rebels.
April 1: Toussaint proclaimed Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue by Leaveaux
May 11: New Commissioners and Sonthonax return to Saint-Domingue to pursue a pro-black policy
October: Simcoe appointed Commander-in-Chief of British troops
1797 February: Colonel Christophe distinguished in campaign against the rebels of
La Grande-Rivière
March: Elections in France bring large number of reactionaries into French Assembly
May: Sonthonax appoints Toussaint Commander-in-Chief of French forces in
Saint-Domingue
August: Toussaint forces Sonthonax to return to France
1798 January: Nesbitt appointed Commander in Chief British troops
March: Maitland arrives at Môle Saint-Nicolas, Nebitt left dying at Madeira
April 21: General Hédouville arrives in Saint-Domingue
April: Maitland opens negotiations with Toussaint.
May: English evacuate Saint-Domingue following agreement between Toussaint and general Maitland
October: Last British troops leave Saint-Domingue
October 21: Toussaint forces General Hédouville to return to France and assumes 
effective control
1799 March: Christophe appointed commandant of Le Cap. Dr. Edward Stevens appointed 
U.S. Consul-general
April: Rigaud makes war on Toussaint
1800 May: Toussaint's armies invade Spanish Santo Domingo
July: Toussaint defeats Rigaud, who escapes to France
October: Toussaint proclaims policy of forced labor throughout Hispaniola
November: Toussaint arrests the only remaining civil commissioner Roume, and sends him back to France
1801 January: Toussaint invades Spanish part of island; Santo Domingo surrenders and
Toussaint annexes Santo Domingo
July: Proclamation of a new constitution under which Toussaint is appointed Governor-General for life
September: Moyse rebellion against Toussaint
October 1: France signs preliminaries of Treaty of Amiens, which ends war with England
November: Toussaint conducts public execution of the rebels
November 25: Toussaint proclaims strict military dictatorship
December: Leclerc's expedition leaves Brest
1802 January: French fleet arrives in Samana Bay
February: Christophe refuses to allow Leclerc to land at Le Cap. Evacuates the town and 
sets it on fire.
February 6: Toussaint retreats to mountains
April: Christophe submits to Leclerc
May 1: Toussaint and Dessalines submit to Leclerc.
June: Leclerc arrests Toussaint and sends him to France
July: News arrives in Saint-Domingue that the French have restored slavery in Guadeloupe
October: Pétion and Clervaux mutiny, followed by Dessalines and Christophe
November: Leclerc dies of yellow fever. Command passes to Rochambeau
1803 April 7: Toussaint dies in captivity at Fort de Joux***
May: Renewal of war between France and Britain
November: Rochambeau surrenders to Dessalines. French forced to evacuate Saint-Domingue. French troops under General Ferrand continue in possession of Spanish part of the island
1804 January: Declaration of independence of the State of Haiti.
May: Napoléon named Emperor of the French Republic, his coronation set for December
September: Dessalines acclaimed Jean-Jacques the First, Emperor of Haiti, crowned in October
1805 March: Dessalines unsuccessfully invades Spanish part of the island.
July: Dessalines appoints Christophe Commander in Chief
1806 February: U.S. Congress bans trade with Haiti, and renews the embargo annually until 
1809
October: Dessalines assassinated
November: Christophe orders elections
December: Christophe refuses offer of presidency, denounces mulatto intrigues, and marches south against Pétion.
1807 February: Christophe elected President of the State of Haiti
March: Pétion elected President of the Republic of Haiti
1808 December: British Order in Council removes restrictions on trade with Haiti
1809 April: Rigaud returns from France. Pétion appoints him Governor of the South Province
1810 May: Christophe confiscates cargo of the Crown, a British merchant vessel
July: Christophe changes the name of Cap-François to Cap-Henri.
September:  Pétion offers to accept British sovereignty
November: Rigaud ties to oust  Pétion
December: Christophe declares his official blockade of the Republic
1811 February: three British seamen killed in incident at Les Gonaïves.
March: Christophe declares Haiti a Kingdom
April: Creation of the Order of Saint-Henri
June: Christophe crowned as King Henri I
September: Rigaud dies
1812 March: Christophe opens new campaign against Pétion
June: Pétion successfully organizes desertion of some of Christophe's troops and mutiny of others; but fails to have him assassinated at Saint-Marc. US. declares war on Britain.
1813 Christophe fights back to former line of demarcation but makes no further attempt to invade 
the Haiti Republic
1814 October: Lavaysse arrives at Port-au-Prince with proposals from the newly-restored 
French monarchy
November: Christophe arrests Medina and orders his trial as a spy
December: Lavaysse leaves Port-au-Prince for France
1815 February: Christophe offers to incorporate the Republic in the Kingdom of Haiti
1816 January: British trader, Davison, arrested and allegedly tortured at Cap-Henri
June: Pétion promulgates new constitution for the Republic, with himself as President for life
September: Gulliver, first of the English teachers, lands at Cap-Henri
October: New French mission, led by Fontanges, arrives at Port-au-Prince
November: Fontagnes's mission returns to France, Christophe publishes his Déclaration du Roi stating "our unshakable resolution either to live free and independent or to die."
1817 May: Pétion gives Methodists permission to open a school in the Republic
1818 March: Pétion dies and is succeeded by Boyer
August: Lightning explodes powder magazine at Citadel-Henry
September: Clarkson interests Czar Alexander in Christophe's projects
December: Christophe sets up Royal Chamber of Public Instruction
1819 July: Christophe distributes lands to soldiers, preparatory to reducing size of the army
November: Christophe asks Clarkson to explore possibilities of a treaty with France
1820 February: Christophe accepts Admiral Popham's mediation with Boyer
April: Boyer rejects mediation
August: Christophe collapses at Limonade
October 2: Mutiny of the 8th Regiment at Saint-Marc
October 8: Christophe commits suicide
October 18: Prince Royal and others bayoneted to death
 

 

 

Source: Hubert Cole. Christophe: King of Haiti. New York. The Viking Press, 1967. George F. Tyson, ed. Toussaint L'Ouverture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973.

 

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French Generals in the  Saint-Domingue Field 

Toussaint L'Ouverture, François Dominique, c.1744–1803, Haitian patriot and martyr. A self-educated slave freed shortly before the uprising in 1791, he joined the black rebellion to liberate the slaves and became its organizational genius. Rapidly rising in power, Toussaint joined forces for a brief period in 1793 with the Spanish of Santo Domingo and in a series of fast-moving campaigns became known as L'Ouverture [the opening], a name he adopted. Although he professed allegiance to France, first to the republic and then to Napoleon, he was singleheartedly devoted to the cause of his own people and advocated it in his talks with French commissioners. 

Late in 1793 the British occupied all of Haiti's coastal cities and allied themselves with the Spanish in the eastern part of the island. Toussaint was the acknowledged leader against them and, with the generals Dessalines and Christophe, recaptured (1798) several towns from the British and secured their complete withdrawal. In 1799 the mulatto general André Rigaud enlisted the aid of Alexandre Pétion and Jean Pierre Boyer, asserted mulatto supremacy, and launched a revolt against Toussaint; the uprising was quelled when Pétion lost the southern port of Jacmel. 

In 1801, Toussaint conquered Santo Domingo, which had been ceded by Spain to France in 1795, and thus he governed the whole island. By then professing only nominal allegiance to France, he reorganized the government and instituted public improvements. Napoleon sent (1802) a large force under General Leclerc to subdue Toussaint, who had become a major obstacle to French colonial ambitions in the Western Hemisphere; the Haitians, however, offered stubborn resistance, and a peace treaty was drawn. Toussaint himself was treacherously seized and sent to France, where he died in a dungeon at Fort-de-Joux, in the French Jura. His valiant life and tragic death made him a symbol of the fight for liberty, and he is celebrated in one of Wordsworth's finest sonnets and in a dramatic poem by Lamartine. 

Toussaint's Surrender  /  Toussaint Trapped

Toussaint Memoir (Toussaint in France)  / Toussaint's Final Days at Fort de Joux

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Rigaud, André, 1761–1811, Haitian mulatto general in the wars that liberated Haiti. Educated, but vain, he believed in the superiority of mulattoes. He sought (1798–1800) unsuccessfully to wrest the leadership from Toussaint L'Ouverture. In 1802 he went to France, returned with General Leclerc, and was sent back again as a prisoner. In 1810, once again on Haitian soil, he tried to overthrow Alexandre Pétion in the south. Defeated, he died, presumably by starving himself to death.

Pétion, Alexandre, 1770–1818, Haitian revolutionist. After taking part in the expulsion (1798) of the English from Haiti, he joined (1799) André Rigaud against Toussaint L'Ouverture and commanded the heroic but tragic defense of Jacmel, a southern port. Exiled, he returned with the French army under Leclerc in 1802. Rejoining the patriots because he feared the reestablishment of slavery, Pétion, after the death of Dessalines, engaged in a fierce but inconclusive struggle with Henri Christophe for control of Haiti. In 1807 he was chosen president for life of the republic in S Haiti. He confiscated the great French plantations, divided the land among the peasants, and gave his people unprecedented freedom. In 1816 he welcomed the exiled Spanish American revolutionist Simón Bolívar and provided him with military assistance. Nevertheless, his administration was tainted with waste and corruption. Pétion was succeeded by Jean Pierre Boyer

Christophe, Henri, 1767–1820, Haitian revolutionary leader. A freed black slave, he aided Toussaint L'Ouverture in the liberation of Haiti and was army chief under Dessalines. When the latter declared himself emperor, Christophe took part (1806) in a successful plot against his life and was elected president of the republic. Christophe, a pure-blooded black, then waged a savage and inconclusive struggle with Alexandre Pétion, the champion of mulatto supremacy, who retained control of S Haiti. In 1811, entrenching himself in N Haiti, Christophe declared himself king as Henri I and entered upon an energetic but tyrannical reign. He created an autocracy patterned after the absolute monarchies of Europe. Compulsory labor enriched his fiefdom. Christophe surrounded himself with lavish, and sometimes ludicrous, magnificence; the pomp and splendor of his reign are still shown by the ruins of the citadel of La Ferrière, a formidable fortress on top of a mountain, surrounded by precipitous cliffs, and of the fabulous palace of Sans Souci, at Cap Haïtien, his capital. In 1820, when he was suffering from partial paralysis, revolts broke out. In despair, Christophe committed suicide.

Boyer, Jean Pierre, 1776–1850, president of Haiti (1818–43). A free mulatto, he fought under Toussaint L'Ouverture and then joined André Rigaud, also a mulatto, in the latter's abortive insurrection against Toussaint. He returned in 1802 with the French army of Charles Leclerc but later joined the patriots under Alexandre Pétion, who chose him as his successor. He united N and S Haiti after the suicide of Henri Christophe (1820), and in 1822, taking advantage of the weakness of Spanish Santo Domingo, he took control of the whole island. Compulsory labor was instituted. In 1825 a French fleet forced Boyer to pay an exorbitant indemnity in return for French losses; France then recognized Haitian independence. Financial embarrassment, combined with the labor policy and the devastation of an earthquake in 1843, brought about Boyer's overthrow and permanent exile.

Leclerc, Charles Victor Emmanuel, 1772–1802, French general. He served under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign, married (1797) Pauline Bonaparte, and took part in Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire (1799). In 1801 he commanded the French expedition to Portugal. He then headed the force sent to subdue Haiti, where François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture had established a virtually autonomous state. The French won several victories after severe fighting, and an agreement was reached. This was broken by Leclerc, who, acting on Napoleon's secret instructions, had Toussaint seized by trickery and deported to France. The natives, led by Jean Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe, rose in revolt and expelled the French, who were weakened by an epidemic of yellow fever. Leclerc died of the fever.

Sources: See C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins (1938,2d ed. 1963); C. Moran, Black Triumvirate: A Study of L'Ouverture, Dessalines, Christophe (1957); A. M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed., Toussaint L'Ouverture: Haitian Liberator (1989).

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AALBC.com's 25 Best Selling Books

For July 1st through August 31st 2011
 

Fiction

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#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
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#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

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Blacks in Hispanic Literature: Critical Essays

Edited by Miriam DeCosta-Willis 

Blacks in Hispanic Literature is a collection of fourteen essays by scholars and creative writers from Africa and the Americas. Called one of two significant critical works on Afro-Hispanic literature to appear in the late 1970s, it includes the pioneering studies of Carter G. Woodson and Valaurez B. Spratlin, published in the 1930s, as well as the essays of scholars whose interpretations were shaped by the Black aesthetic. The early essays, primarily of the Black-as-subject in Spanish medieval and Golden Age literature, provide an historical context for understanding 20th-century creative works by African-descended, Hispanophone writers, such as Cuban Nicolás Guillén and Ecuadorean poet, novelist, and scholar Adalberto Ortiz, whose essay analyzes the significance of Negritude in Latin America. This collaborative text set the tone for later conferences in which writers and scholars worked together to promote, disseminate, and critique the literature of Spanish-speaking people of African descent. . . . Cited by a literary critic in 2004 as "the seminal study in the field of Afro-Hispanic Literature . . . on which most scholars in the field 'cut their teeth'."

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Greenback Planet: How the Dollar Conquered

the World and Threatened Civilization as We Know It

By H. W. Brands

In Greenback Planet, acclaimed historian H. W. Brands charts the dollar's astonishing rise to become the world's principal currency. Telling the story with the verve of a novelist, he recounts key episodes in U.S. monetary history, from the Civil War debate over fiat money (greenbacks) to the recent worldwide financial crisis. Brands explores the dollar's changing relations to gold and silver and to other currencies and cogently explains how America's economic might made the dollar the fundamental standard of value in world finance. He vividly describes the 1869 Black Friday attempt to corner the gold market, banker J. P. Morgan's bailout of the U.S. treasury, the creation of the Federal Reserve, and President Franklin Roosevelt's handling of the bank panic of 1933. Brands shows how lessons learned (and not learned) in the Great Depression have influenced subsequent U.S. monetary policy, and how the dollar's dominance helped transform economies in countries ranging from Germany and Japan after World War II to Russia and China today. He concludes with a sobering dissection of the 2008 world financial debacle, which exposed the power--and the enormous risks--of the dollar's worldwide reign.  The Economy

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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posted 2 May 2010 

 

 

 

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