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slavery was central to the American economy, and since the document set the stage for a national

economy, the Constitution could not avoid having implications for slavery. Even more, since

the government defined sovereignty over individuals, as well as property in them, discussion of

sovereignty led directly to debate over slavery’s place in the new republic.   



 Washerwomen in Baltimore 1865-1866 


This source included only those colored persons whose surnames began with the letters A and B. Even in such an abbreviated list we find over 40 black washerwomen. This list indicates the ubiquity of washerwomen in Baltimore and the economic importance of such women to a large city. 

It, of course, also indicates the impoverishment of a great number of black women. One notes also that most of the addresses are centered near the present state office building on Eutaw at Howard and the Pennsylvania Avenue at North Avenue areas and that these addresses are located in alleys and back streets.

Adams, Mrs. L., washerwoman,                           170 Dover

Alexander, Harriet, washerwoman,                       45 Tyson al

Ayers, Susan, washerwoman,                                4 Spruce al

Bailey, Ann, washerwoman,                                  12 Boyd

Bantum, Mary, washerwoman,                               27 Moore al

Barnes, Harriet, washerwoman,                              59 Jasper

Barnes, Sophia, washerwoman,                              4 s Dallas

Barney, Mary, washerwoman,                                5 Inloes al

Bateman, Ann, washerwoman,                                10 Douglass

Bates, Caroline, washerwoman,                              6 Eutaw ct

Bawn, Mary, washerwoman,                                   126 Chestnut

Bawn, Sarah, washerwoman,                                   50 Low

Baynard, Amanda, washerwoman,                           104 Cider al

Bell, Louisa, washerwoman,                                    89 n Dallas

Bell, Rosetta,, washerwoman,                                  45 State

Benson, Jane, washerwoman,                                  1 Hull's la

Berry, Ann, washerwoman,                                     145 Low

Berry, Harriet, washerwoman,                                 58 Chestnut

Blacksin, Susan, washerwoman,                               41 East

Blake, Emeline, washerwoman,                                21 Tyson al

Blake, Julia A., washerwoman,                                68 Welcome al

Bosley, Lydia, washerwoman,                                  57 East

Boston, Mary, washerwoman,                                  7 Chestnut

Botton, Julia A., washerwoman,                               22 State

Bowley, Kitty, washerwoman,                                  17 Penn al

Brady, Sarah J., washerwoman,                              7 Penn al

Britton, Mary J., washerwoman,                             167 n Dallas

Brooks, Cath'ne, washerwoman,                            67 Sarah Ann

Brooks, Margaret, washerwoman,                         263 Hughes

Brooks, Mary Jane, washerwoman,                       4 Chestnut

Broomfield, Annie, washerwoman,                         8 Forrest

Brown, Anna, washerwoman,                                8 State

Brown, Charlotte, washerwoman,                          87 L. Church

Brown, Ellen, washerwoman,                                 4 Inloes al

Brown, Georgianna, washerwoman,                       11 Jasper

Brown, Harriet, washerwoman,                              47 Tyson al

Brown, Harriet, washerwoman,                              73 Davis

Brown, Harriet, washerwoman,                              11 Jasper

Brown, Hester, washerwoman,                               115 Low

Brown, Mary, washerwoman,                                58 Lewis

Brown, Matilda, washerwoman,                             11 Jasper

Brown, Rosetta, washerwoman,                             223 s Howard

Brown, Ruth, washerwoman,                                  27 Elbow la

Note: Abbreviations: n. north; s. south;  ct. court;  al. alley; la. lane.

Source: "Baltimore Directory 1865-66." This Larger of African Americans was extracted by Louis S. Diggs

*   *   *   *   *'s 25 Best Selling Books



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#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

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#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

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#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

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#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

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The Persistence of the Color Line

Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency

By Randall Kennedy

Among the best things about The Persistence of the Color Line is watching Mr. Kennedy hash through the positions about Mr. Obama staked out by black commentators on the left and right, from Stanley Crouch and Cornel West to Juan Williams and Tavis Smiley. He can be pointed. Noting the way Mr. Smiley consistently “voiced skepticism regarding whether blacks should back Obama” . . .

The finest chapter in The Persistence of the Color Line is so resonant, and so personal, it could nearly be the basis for a book of its own. That chapter is titled “Reverend Wright and My Father: Reflections on Blacks and Patriotism.”  Recalling some of the criticisms of America’s past made by Mr. Obama’s former pastor, Mr. Kennedy writes with feeling about his own father, who put each of his three of his children through Princeton but who “never forgave American society for its racist mistreatment of him and those whom he most loved.”  His father distrusted the police, who had frequently called him “boy,” and rejected patriotism. Mr. Kennedy’s father “relished Muhammad Ali’s quip that the Vietcong had never called him ‘nigger.’ ” The author places his father, and Mr. Wright, in sympathetic historical light.

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The Benefit and The Burden: Tax Reform

Why We Need It and What It Will Take

By Bruce Bartlett

The United States Tax Code has undergone no serious reform since 1986. Since then, loopholes, exemptions, credits, and deductions have distorted its clarity, increased its inequity, and frustrated our ability to govern ourselves. At its core, any tax system is in place to raise the revenue needed to pay the government’s bills. But where that revenue should come from raises crucial questions: Should our tax code be progressive, with the wealthier paying more than the poor, and if so, to what extent? Should we tax income or consumption or both? Of the various ideas proposed by economists and politicians—from tax increases to tax cuts, from a VAT to a Fair Tax—what will work and won’t? By tracing the history of our own tax system and by assessing the way other countries have solved similar problems, Bartlett explores the surprising answers to all of these questions, giving a sense of the tax code’s many benefits—and its inevitable burdens.

Tax reform will be a major issue debated in the years ahead. Growing budget deficits and the expiration of various tax cuts loom. Reform, once a philosophical dilemma, is turning into a practical crisis. By framing the various tax philosophies that dominate the debate, Bartlett explores the distributional, technical, and political advantages and costs of the various proposals and ideas that will come to dominate America’s political conversation in the years to come.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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posted 22 June 2008




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