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The disposition of the territory of Palestine not included with the boundaries

of the Jewish state should be left to the governments of the Arab states,

in full consultation with the Arab inhabitants of Palestine

 
 

 

Count Folke Bernadotte's 

Report on Palestine

 

The conclusions made by the late Count Folke Bernadotte on his work as Palestine Mediator were presented to the general Assembly of the United nations in Paris on September 20, 1948, three days after Count Bernadotte was assassinated in the Israeli-held area of Jerusalem. Following is the text of these conclusions as reported by The New York Times.

I

Since I presented my written suggestions to the Arab and Jewish authorities on June 27, I have made no formal submission to either party of further suggestions or proposals for a definitive settlement. Since that date, however, I have held many oral discussions in the Arab capitals and Tel Aviv, in the course of which various ideas on settlement have been freely exchanged.

As regards my original suggestions, I hold to the opinion that they offered a general framework within which a reasonable and workable settlement might have been reached had the two parties concerned been willing to discuss them. They were flatly rejected, however, by both parties. Since they were forth on the explicit condition that they were purely tentative, were designed primarily to elicit views and counter-suggestions from each party, and, in any event could be implemented only if agreed upon by both parties, I have never since pressed them. With respect to one basic concept in my suggestions it has become increasingly clear to me that, however desirable a political and economic union might be in Palestine, the time is certainly not now propitious for the effectuation of any such scheme.

II

I do not consider it to be within my province to recommend to the members of the United States a proposed course of action on the Palestine question. That is a responsibility of the members, acting through the appropriate organs. In my role as United Nations Mediator, however, it was inevitable that I should accumulate information and draw conclusions from my experience which might well be of assistance to members of the United Nations action on Palestine.

I consider it my duty, therefore, to acquaint the members of the United Nations, through the medium of this report, with certain of the conclusions on means of peaceful adjustment which have evolved from my frequent consultations with Arabs and Jewish authorities over the past three and one-half months and from my personal appraisal of the present Palestinian scene.

I am convinced, however, that it is possible at this stage to formulate a proposal which, if firmly approved and strongly backed by the General Assembly, would not be forcibly resisted by either side, confident as I am, of course, that the Security Council stands firm in its resolution of July 15 that military action shall not be employed by either party in the Palestine dispute. It cannot be ignored that the vast difference between now and last November is that a war has been started and stopped and that, in the intervening months, decisive events have occurred.

III

The following seven basic premises form the basis for my conclusions:

RETURN TO PEACE

(A) Peace must return to Palestine and every feasible measure should be taken to insure that hostilities will not be resumed and that harmonious relations between Arab and Jew will ultimately be restored.

THE JEWISH STATE

(B) A Jewish state called Israel exists in Palestine and there are no sound reasons for assuming that it will not continue to do so.

BOUNDARY DETERMINATIONS

(C) The boundaries of this new state must finally be fixed either by formal agreement between the parties concerned or, failing that, by the United Nations.

Continuous Frontiers

(D) Adherence to the principle of geographical homogeneity and integration, which should be the major objective of the boundary arrangement, should apply equally to Arab and Jewish territories, whose frontier should not, therefore, be rightly controlled by the territorial arrangements envisaged in the resolution of November 29.

RIGHT OF REPATRIATION

(E) The right of innocent people, uprooted from their homes by the present error and ravages of war, to return to their homes should be affirmed and made effective with assurance of adequate compensation for the property of those who may choose not to return

JERUSALEM

(F) The city of Jerusalem, because of its religious and international significance and the complexity of interest involved, should be accorded special and separate treatment.

INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

(G) International responsibility should be expressed where desirable and necessary in the form of international guarantees as a means of allaying existing fears, and particularly with regard to boundaries and human rights.

IV

The following conclusions, broadly outlined, would, in my view, considering all the circumstances, provide a reasonable, equitable and workable basis for settlement.

     (A) Since the Security Council, under pain of Chapter VIII Sanctions, has forbidden further employment of military action in Palestine as a means of settling the dispute, hostilities should be pronounced formally ended either by mutual agreement of the parties or, failing that, by the United nations. The existing indefinite truce should be superseded by a formal peace or, at the minimum, an armistice which would involve either complete withdrawal and demobilization of armed forces or their wide separation by creation of broad demilitarized zones under United Nations supervision.

     (B) The frontier between the Arab and Jewish territories, in the absence of agreement between Arabs and Jews, should be established by the United Nations and delimited by a technical boundaries commission appointed by and responsible to the United Nations with the following revisions in the boundaries broadly defined in the resolution of the General Assembly of November 29 in order to make them more equitable, workable, and consistent with existing realities in Palestine.

Map below left: The area in brown -- Jewish territory. The area in purple -- Arab territory.

( i ) The area known as the Negeb, south of a line running from the sea near El Majdal east southeast of Faluja (both of which places would be in Arab territory) should be defined as Arab territory.

     ( ii ) The frontier should run from Faluja north northeast to Ramieh and Lydda (both of which places would be in Arab territory), the frontier at Lydda then following the line established in the general Assembly resolution of November 29.

     ( iii ) Galilee should be defined as Jewish territory

     (C) The disposition of the territory of Palestine not included with the boundaries of the Jewish state should be left to the governments of the Arab states, in full consultation with the Arab inhabitants of Palestine, with the recommendation, however, that in view of the historical connection and common interest of Trans-Jordan and Palestine there would be compelling reasons for merging the Arab territory of Palestine with the territory of Trans-Jordan, subject to such frontier rectifications regarding other Arab states as may be found practicable and desirable.

     (D) The United Nations, by declaration or other appropriate means, should undertake to provide special assurance that the boundaries between the Arab and Jewish territories shall be respected and maintained, subject only to such modifications as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties concerned.

     (E) The port of Haifa, including the oil refineries and terminals and without prejudice to their inclusion in the sovereign territory of the Jewish state or the administration of the city of Haifa, should be declared a free port with assurances of free access for interested Arab countries and an undertaking on their part to place no obstacle in the way of oil deliveries by pipeline to the Haifa refineries, whose distribution would continue on the basis of the historical pattern.

     (F) The airport of Lydda should be declared a free airport, with assurance of access to it and employment of its facilities for Jerusalem and interested Arab countries.

     (G) The city of Jerusalem, which should be understood as covering the area defined in the resolution of the General Assembly of November 29, should be treated separately and should be placed under effective United Nations control with maximum feasible local autonomy for its Arab and Jewish communities, with full safeguards for the protection of the holy places and sites and free access to them, and for religious freedom.

     (H) The right of unimpeded access to Jerusalem by road, rail, or air should be fully respected by all parties.

     (I) The right of the Arab refugees to return to their homes in Jewish-controlled territory at the earliest possible date should be affirmed by the United nations, and their repatriation, resettlement, and economic and social rehabilitation and payment of adequate compensation for the property of those choosing not to return should be supervised and assisted by the United Nations Conciliation Commission described in paragraph (K) below.

     (J) the political, economic, social, and religious rights of all Arabs in the Jewish territory of Palestine and of all Jews in the Arab territory of Palestine should be fully guaranteed and respected by the authorities. The Conciliation Commission provided for in the following paragraph should be supervise the observance of this guarantee. It should also lend its good offices, on the invitation of the parties, to any efforts toward exchanges of populations with a view to eliminating troublesome minority problems and on the basis of adequate compensation for property owned.

     (K) In view of the special nature of the Palestine problem and the dangerous complexities of Arab-Jewish relationships, the United Nations should establish a Palestine Conciliation Commission. The commission which should be appointed for a limited period, should be responsible to the United Nations and act under its authority. The commission, assisted by such United Nations personnel as may prove necessary, should undertake:

     ( i ) To employ its good offices to make such recommendations to the parties or to the United Nations and to take such other steps as may be appropriate, with a view to insuring the continuation of the peaceful adjustment of the situation in Palestine.

     ( ii ) Such measures as it might consider appropriate in fostering the cultivation of friendly relations between Arabs and Jews;

     ( iii ) To supervise the observance of such boundary, road, railroad, free port, and other arrangements as may be decided upon by the United Nations.

     ( iv ) To report promptly to the United Nations any development in Palestine likely to alter the arrangements approved by the United Nations in the Palestine settlement or to threaten the peace of the area.

Source: Current History, November 1948

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Report: Being Black in IsraelThe Ethiopian Jews are commonly known by the slightly derogatory term Falasha but the name they chose for themselves is Beta Israel (Hebrew for The House of Israel). They are today virtually no Ethiopian Jews anymore in Ethiopia. Israel organized mass migrations in the late 80’s (Operation Moses). If you want to know more about Operation Moses read this. Many Ethiopian Jews converted to Christianity at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. They faced discrimination and hardship and chose to become Christians in a predominantly Christian country to make their lives easier. However, today many of the descendants of these converts feel they are still Jews and should also have the right for aliya, i.e., to ‘return’ to Israel. These people are named Falash Mura and after many discussions the Israeli government made them eligible for migration although with many restrictions and limitations. More on this phenomenon here. . . . Blacks in Israel are also African Hebrew Israelites also known as Black Hebrews, who settled in Israel in 1969. They are of black American ancestry and were therefore not recognized as Jews. But after decades they have been granted permanent residency status in 2004 and became eligible for military service since then. In 2006, Eddie Butler, a Black Hebrew, was chosen by the Israeli public to represent Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest. They mainly live in the Negev town of Dimona were they form a community of 3000 people, but other families live in other towns too.AfroEurope

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AALBC.com's 25 Best Selling Books


 

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label 'trafficked' does not accurately describe migrants' lives and that the 'rescue industry' serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. "Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality."—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine

By  Ilan Pappe

It is amazing, according to Pappe, how the media had not managed to see the similarities between the ethnic cleansing that was happening in Bosnia with the one that is happening in Palestine. According to Drazen Petrovic (pg.2-3), who has dealt with the definition of ethnic cleansing, ethnic cleansing is associated with nationalism, the making of new nation states and national struggle all of which are the driving force within the Zionist ideology of Israel. The consultancy council had used the exact same methods as the methods that were later to be used by the Serbs in Bosnia. In fact Pappe argues that such methods were employed in order to establish the state of Israel in 1948.

The book is divided into 12 chapters with 19 illustrations in black and white, with 7 maps of Palestine and 2 tables. These include old photographs of refugee camps, and maps of Palestine before and after the ethnic cleansing of 1948. Pappe continues his writing as a revisionist historian with the intention of stating the bitter truth to his Israeli contemporaries and the fact that they have to face the truth of their nation being built upon an ethnic cleansing of the population of Palestine.

One can sense an optimistic hope in Pappe’s writing when he talks about the few who are in Israel who are aware of their country’s brutal past especially 1948 and the foundation of the state upon ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians.—PaLint

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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